Abstracts of the Attributes of Allah, taken from two statements of Prophet Muhammed ( SAWS ) are based on the meanings conveyed through the respective root words and their derivatives used in the Holy Quran, the chapter and verse numbers of which are given in brackets.
Allah is the name given in the Holy Quran to the Divine Being Who exists necessarily by Himself, comprising all the Attributes of perfection. Allah is an underived word, it neither has a feminine nor a plural. It has never been used for any deity except the True God. As a proper noun and a name it cannot be translated into any language. The word ‘God’ is the translation of the word ‘Ilaha’ which is not a personal name but the name of a status meaning, ‘The Supreme Authority in the Universe’, just like president, chairman, king etc. There is only one ‘Ilaha’ and that is Allah. In the Holy Quran nothing is mentioned about His constitution, size or shape. He is beyond human imagination. We are required to recognize and call Him only through His name and Attributes ( 7:180 ) which also serve as His Functions. He is separate and different from His creation ( 58:7 ). He does not beget and He is not begotten. He cannot be seen ( 6: 130). He is not only the Creator of the material universe but also the laws governing its birth, existence and end ( 7:54 ). He is the Supreme Authority in the universe having absolute power over everything, everywhere and every moment ( 5:17, 33:38 ). He does what He Wills or intends to ( 3:40, 2:253 ) and no one can question Him for His actions ( 21:23). All the forces are at His Command ( 48:4 ). The whole creation submits to Him ( 13:15, 16:49 ) glorifying Him ( 57:1 ). Everything belongs to Him as part of His kingdom ( 2:255, 3:189 ).
Allah is always alive, conscious and attentive being present everywhere, He does not die, does not sleep, does not become inattentive with regard to His creation and does not get tired managing it ( 2:115, 2:255, 25:58 ). He is Eternally Existing ( 3:2 ), Self Subsisting, established over everything, everywhere. He maintains, conducts and sets right His creation. He is unique, One, Single, having no partners and nothing else is like Him. He is the Indivisible Whole possessing all the Attributes at one and the same time which function with perfect coordination. He is Holy, Pure, having nothing in Him except Himself, free from all defects, evils, short comings etc. He is the Absolute ( 59:23 ). He is Real, True, Right, Correct, Just etc. ( 22:6 ). He is the ‘Ultimate Reality’ and not the product of someone’s conjecture or desire. He is the Light of the skies and the earth and guides to His light whom He wills ( 24:35 ). Light makes everything visible but is itself invisible ( 6:103 ).
His Powers : He is the Owner, Master and the King of the universe ( 1:3, 3:26, 3:189, 23:116, 54:55 ) He is Independent ( 3:97, 35:15, 39:7 ) and everything else is dependent on Him ( 112:2 ). He is the Mighty, the Great, Firm and Strong ( 13:9, 59:23, 2:255, 56:74, 51:58, 22:74 ) Who holds together His creation ( 35:41 ). He measures out, programmes and destines everything in His creation, fixing the time and place of every event ( 54:3, 73:20, 6:96-97, 36:33-39, 41:9-12, 13:8, 77:20-23, 80:19-20, 54:49, 65:3, 25:2, 5:120, 18:45 ). He is Glorious ( 11:73 ), Possessor of Majesty, Honour and Bounty ( 55:27 ), Dominating ( 12:21 ), Who can compel everything to obey His orders ( 59:23 ) being Omnipotent ( 40:16 ) Who can subdue, subjugate over whelm over power, defeat etc. anyone and anything.
His association with space : He is the Evident, the Outer Most, Who is external to everything at the same time He is hidden, the Inner Most, internal with respect to everything ( 57:3 ). He is Omnipresent, Ample Giving Whose Power, Knowledge, Mercy etc. extend over everything ( 2:255, 20:98, 7:156 ). He expands the universe ( 51:47 ) being present everywhere ( 2:115 ). He grants in abundance to whom He wills. He encompasses everything having total knowledge of and total power on everything ( 4:126, 17:60, 65:12 ). He is the Nearest and First to hear us and respond to our prayers ( 2:186, 50:16). He is High and Exalted over everything ( 2:255, 7:190 ).
His association with time : He is the First, there was no one and nothing existing before Him and He will be the Last when everything will perish except Him. He is the One Who remains ( 28:88, 55:26-27, 57:3, 20:73 ). He has fixed the time and place of happening of every affair ( 54:3 ) but He has the power of preponing, postponing or even canceling it ( 13:39 ).
Abu Hurayrah ( RA ), a companion of prophet Muhammed ( SAWS ), reports that the messenger of Allah ( SAWS ) once said, “Allah says Adam’s son ( i.e. man ) annoys Me by abusing time although I am TIME and the affair of alternating the night and the day is in My hand ( which makes us conscious of time ). Collected by Bukhari and Muslim.
His association with His creation : He is the only ‘Ilaha’ i.e. God in the skies and the earth ( 2:163, 43:84, 47:19 ). If there were two or more gods then there would have been total disorder in the whole universe due to their mutual fighting for achieving the ownership and control of the throne of the universe and each god would have taken away things which he had created ( 23:91, 17:42 ). Contrary to this there is perfect order in the creation ( 67:3-4 ). God is He Who creates and destroys, controls everything, is capable of harming and benefiting others ( 7;191-195, 10:18, 16:73-74, 22:73, 46:4-6 ). Can anything other than God do the above things? Therefore nothing from His creation is to be elevated to His position as partner or equal and doing this is an unforgivable sin ( 4:48,116 ). He is the Omniscient, knowing everything whether seen or unseen ( 6:101, 17:25, 22:70, 35:38, 59:22 ) and He is Wise ( 2:209 ). He is the Originator of the material and the energy in His creation, Assigner of Laws for the perfect and peaceful existence of His creation, Proportioner of the raw materials, Purifier as an eliminator of unwanted things and the Fashioner of the final products ( 2:117, 6:79, 30:30, 35:1, 59:24 ) He it is Who begins and gets things reproduced ( 21:104, 10:34 ). He sustains life ( 51:58, 15:20 ) through water ( 45:5 ), food ( 50:9-11 ) etc. bestowing more on some and less on others ( 2:212,245, 13:26 ). He fosters everything ( 6:164 ) in such a manner as to make it attain one condition after another until it reaches its goal of completion, i.e. He cherishes, nourishes, develops and evolves. He is the Lord of the worlds ( 1:1, 11:107, 9:129 ). His ‘Rahmat’ which conveys the sense of benefit, reward, safety out of mercy, good etc. extends over everything ( 7:156 ). He has raised the heavenly bodies without any pillars and He is the Custodian, Controller and Monitor over everything ( 2:255, 4:85, 11:57, 13:2 ). He has the power to bring together all human beings on the day of resurrection ( 3:9, 77:38 ) and also the whole universe, ending it in the ‘Big Crunch’ ( 75:9, 21:104, 39:67 ). He grants in abundance to whom He pleases ( 13:26 ). He is capable of finding, that is, nothing can be hidden from Him ( 38:44, 93:6 ). He computes, calculates and preserves the record of everything ( 36:12, 72:28 ). He inherits everything, that is, everything will go back to Him ( 57:10 ). He is ‘The Praised’. Everything, everywhere always praises and thanks Him but we do not understand their praise and glorification ( 17:44 ).
His association with mankind : Real guidance is only Allah’s guidance ( 2:120 ). He guides whom He wills to the right way (14:4 ). He creates everything, sets up equilibrium in it, programmes it and then guides it to follow the programme ( 87:1-3 ). He is the Author of peace, ( 59:23 ), Perfect, Sound, Defectless, Safe, Source of rising high, Dictator of the ‘Religion of Peace i.e. Al – Islam’, before Whom everything submits as a Muslim ( 3:83 ). He is the Granter of security, peace, safety. He is Reliable and Trustworthy, in Whose existence we are required to believe. This belief or ‘Iman’ is an internal condition and ‘Islam’ is its expression. He is the Guardian Who prevails providing protection, exhibiting love and mercy ( 59:23 ). He is the Subtle, Who is informed of the internally hidden conditions of everything. His Grace, Kindness, Beneficence, Mercy etc. continuously work behind the scene without our noticing them immediately, we notice the result only after some time ( 6:103, 42:19, 67:13-14 ). Water is continuously evaporating without our notice to form clouds, we notice only the final effect as rain and vegetation. He is Clement, full of leniency, kindness, tolerance, forbearance, giving time for amendment though He has the power to punish us immediately for the sins committed by us ( 2:225, 3:155 ). Allah is the God, Strong and perfectly informed, inspite of this, His Authority is denied and others beside Him are worshipped, respected and obeyed. He has he power of retaliation, still He exhibits unmatched patience and restraint. He is ‘The Loving’. His love is associated with His mercy and forgiveness. Love should be reciprocal which requires response from human beings in the form of obeying His orders ( 11:90, 85:14 ). He responds to one who prays to Him ( 2:186, 11:61 ). His grant is not restricted to those who pray to Him, He even grants to those who are unfit to receive it ( 14:39 ). He sometimes grants as a reward. He grants to whom He wills ( 3:8, 42: 49 ). He is ‘The Helper’ ( 2:107 ) and when He helps no one can stop His help ( 3:13,160 ). He obliges human beings by guiding them towards right belief ( 49:17 ). He is ‘The Trustee’ Who is Reliable, Dependable and Incharge of everything ( 6:102 ). We are required to put our total trust in Him and He loves such people ( 3:159, 65:3 ). He is the our Patron and Friend towards Whom we are required to turn for help ( 2:107 ). He is Kind, Benign Who exhibits His fidelity and response ( 52:28 ). He is full of pity for others ( 9:117 ) saving His servants from harmful things which hinder their growth. His help should be sought ( 1:4, 21:112 ) and only He can benefit. He has the charge and maintains everything ( 16:91 ). He is sufficient as Guardian ( 4:45 ), Helper, Trustee, Guide, ( 4:81, 25:31 ) as one Who knows (4:70 ) as One Informed ( 17:17 ), Seeing, Witnessing ( 4:79 ) and as One Who takes account ( 4:6 ). He is constantly and intensely Gracious ( 19:47 ). He elevates righteous deeds ( 35:10 ). He can forbid, prevent, harm and disgrace anyone. He sees ( 17:1 ), hears ( 2:127), is informed ( 2:234 ), is a witness ( 22: 17 ) and Vigilant ( 33:52 ) over everything. He will raise the dead ( 22:7) to take an account of everything ( 4:86 ). He manifests the truth, He is the best Judge executing justice ( 95:8, 34:26 ). He acknowledges ( 2:158 ) our striving in His cause. He accepts repentance ( 4:16-18, 9:104 ), He pardons and He can protect us from committing sins and also the punishment of sins already committed ( 6:165, 39:53 ). He inflicts retribution ( 3:4 ) and is Severe in requiting evil ( 2:196 ).
Allah, exhibiting all His Attributes, gives life, causes to die ( 40:68 ), shapes us and gives us complexions as He wills ( 3:6, 35:28, 30:22 ). He gives us physical senses ( 16:78 ) knowledge ( 2:255, 96:4-5 ), wisdom ( 2:269 ), language and speech ( 30:22, 55: 2-4, 90:8-9 ). It is He Who gives us happiness and sorrow ( 53:43 ) and restores us to health ( 26:80 ). He grants us mates ( 30:21 ), children ( male or female ), progeny ( 16:72, 42:49-50. 23:79 ) and relatives ( 25:54 ). He grants us sleep for rest ( 25:47, 78:9 ) and provides us with food ( 11:6, 15:20-21, 27:64 ), clothes ( 16:81 ). Houses ( 16:80 ), roads ( 20:53 ) and means of transport ( 17:70, 36:41-42, 40:79 ). He sanctifies ( 4:49, 24:21 ) and grants higher or lower status to whom He wills ( 3:26, 12:76, 43:32 ). He has subjected everything in the universe to serve us ( 31:20 ) and made us collectively responsible to implement His laws (2 :30-39, 6:165 ) for the peaceful existence of mankind. All this He has done to TEST us, so as to mark out the dwellers of paradise and hell ( 11:7, 67:2, 76:2 ) and to help us in achieving success in this test He has been extremely fair in providing us with guidance in the form of Divine revelations communicated through His messengers ( PBT ) who were sent to all communities, ( 16:36, 35:24, 40:78 ) the final form of which is the Holy Quran ( 5:48 ) and the last Messenger Muhammed ( SAWS ) ( 33:40 ).
These Attributes of Allah exhibit ‘Rahmat’ which according to the Holy Quran includes in it: worldly provisions necessary to keep human beings alive 17:100 & 30:50; appointment of night for rest and day for earning livelihood 28:73; compassion and mercy towards parents 17:24 love and tranquilty derived from mates 30:21; the Quran 17:82; prophet Muhammed (PBUH) 21:107; paradise 45:30; forgiveness of sins 39:53 etc. Rahmat is an item of enjoyment opposite to loss 7:23, punishment 6:15 - 16 harm 30:33; evil 30:36; destruction 67:28 etc.
Rahmat being constructive, beneficial, full of mercy etc. is also supported by the fact that the Arabic word for ‘womb’ is Rahm 3:6 from the same root alphabets used for Rahmaan, Rahiim and Rahmat. The child in the womb is provided with all that is necessary for its growth through the mother and is carefully protected from all harmful things. The feeling of the mother towards the child is that of compassion, beneficence, mercy, safety etc. and these feelings further explain the term Rahmat about which Allah (SWT) states in the Holy Quran :-
“He has prescribed Rahmat on Himself” 6:12
The Attribute of Allah (SWT) associated with the revelation and teaching of the Holy Quran is ‘Ar-Rahmaan’ 41:2 and 55:1-2 and implementing the Holy Quran in accordance with the instructions given by prophet Muhammed (PBH) is the greatest benefit for us in the life of this world and the hereafter. The Attribute associated with the fostering of the universe which is beneficial for it is again ‘Ar-Rahmaan’ 78:37 Many more examples can be cited to show that the Attribute Ar-Rahmaan is associated with beneficence.
The frequent association of the Attribute Ar-Rahiim with Al-Gafuur (Protector and Forgiver of sins), At-Tawwaab (Accepter of repentance) and Ar Rauuf (One full of pity) indicates that Allah’s (SWT) Mercy is exhibited through His Attribute Ar-Rahiim. The Attributes Ar-Rahmaan and Ar-Rahiim associated with Allah’s (SWT) name thus convey the sense that He is ‘The Beneficent and the Merciful’ respectively Allah’s (SWT) beneficence appears to be an expression of His Mercy for His creation.
Someone or something can be recognize or identified by his/its name. It is sometimes associated with qualities and / or purpose of a thing like ‘sugar’ for the quality of sweetness and ‘chair’ used for the purpose of sitting, ‘Allah’ representing all His Attributes 7:180 etc., (5:4, 61:6 )
It is very clearly hinted in the Holy Quran 3:188 that He only should be praised who does something good. It is Allah (SWT) Who does everything therefore, all praise is due only to Him 1:1. ‘Al’ translated as ‘the’ also conveys the sense of ‘all’. Allah (SWT) initiated the creation of the universe 35:1, 2:117. He fosters it and everything in it belongs to Him 34:1 therefore everything praises Him 17:44.
Al-Hamd, at some places in the Holy Quran conveys the sense of ‘thanks’ 7:43, 14:39, 23:28 and 27:15. All thanks are also due only to Him because He does everything for us. Those who do not thank Him by praising Him exhibit ingratitude and pride 31:12, 32:15. Allah (SWT) does not like these qualities in His servants 39:7, on the contrary He orders:
“Put your trust in the Living Who does not die and glorify (Him) by praising Him (thanking Him) ... 25:58
Other words associated with ‘Hamd’ are the Attributes of Allah (SWT) Al-Hamiid 2:267 meaning Praiseworthy, Ahmad 61:6 and Muhammed (PBH) 3:144 the names of the last messenger of Allah (SWT) meaning one who is praised, Mahmuud 17:79 meaning praised.
Rabb is someone who fosters a thing in such a manner as to make it attain one condition after another until it reaches its goal of completion (Raghib). Rabb is thus someone Who is the Owner, the Master, the Lord possessing supreme power and authority, One Who cherishes, sustains, nourishes, brings to maturity, maintains, manages, develops, evolves in short One Who fosters - The Fosterer.
Allah (SWT) as ‘The Rabb’ is the Owner, the Master, the Cherisher, the Sustainer, the Fosterer of the whole universe 6:165, 45:36. He is the Lord possessing supreme power and authority over the throne of the universe 9:129 and does what He Wills 11:107. We have accepted Him as our Lord and Fosterer even before coming into this world 7:172-174. This is an experience we do not remember, but memory is not the basis of the truth of some event, it is a truth beyond denial that all of us were born but we do not remember the most important event of our life. He as our Fosterer, created us and ordered the angels to bow down before Adam 38:71-74. Bowing down of angels was probably putting all concerned energies under the control of man. In view of this the present human progress in science and technology may be due only to their control on energies known as angels in the language of religion and this human control on energies is a gift to humanity by Allah (SWT) and not its achievement. Allah (SWT) as the Fosterer provides for mankind whatever He Wills giving more to some and less to others 17:30. He guides human beings through His communications to selected persons known as prophets and messengers of Allah (SWT) who try to lead them to paradise and save them from hell 4:163-166, 7:203. We are required to seek only His help 1:4, 40:60 as He is our Fosterer 114:1, praise and glorify Him 32:15, declare His Greatness 2:185, believe in His signs, fear Him, not associating any partner with Him 23:57-61, put our trust only in Him 16:99 and worship Him alone 40:64-65 seeking His protection from being influenced by the evil suggestions of the devil 23:97-98 because if we obey the devil we will land in hell 26:91-95. Allah (SWT) operates as Rabb exhibiting 30 of His Attributes. Some communities regard their priests, monks and prophets as their Rabb 9:31, 3:64. The fact is that Allah (SWT) is the only Rabb-Fosterer of His creation 1:1.
‘Aalam’ (the singular of Aalamiin) is a thing through which the knowledge of something else is obtained. ‘Alaamaat’ means land marks 16:16 and ‘Alaam’ means mountains 42:32 which are again land marks which help in obtaining knowledge of the direction of one’s destination. The whole creation is known as an ‘Aalam’ because knowledge of its Creator Allah (SWT) is obtained through it. There are many worlds, physical, mental, spiritual, past, present, future, human, animal etc. Besides, the world today is not what it was yesterday or what it would be tomorrow. According to scientists, the universe is continuously expanding, occupying different volumes at different moments. Quantum physicists too propose the existence of many universes. In view of all this, the creation of Allah (SWT) would best be represented by the plural ‘Aalamiin’ meaning ‘worlds’ which includes all the heavenly bodies and the earth 45:36 and all that is between them (19:65)
An Attribute of Allah (SWT) meaning One Who owns having full authority and power 30:28 on everything - the Master. ‘Malik’ meaning ‘King’ 23:116 and ‘Mulk’ meaning kingdom 3:189 are from the same root alphabets. In the kingdom of Allah (SWT) all others are slaves having only those powers which are bestowed by Him. No one has any power or authority on his own accord. He is the Real King (20:114)
This word has been used in the sense of a normal day as Friday 62:9, Saturday 7:163, opposite to night 69:7, for two days 2:203 and eight days 69:7. It has also been used for periods of time more than one normal day, for instance, for a period of 7 nights and 8 days 54:19, for 1000 years 22:47, 32:5, for 50,000 years 70:4 and for an unspecified period of time in the sense of past tense 10:102. Therefore ‘Yawm-iddiin’ may be one day or a period more than that and the time of creation of the skies and the earth may be 6 days or periods of various duration's denoting 6 chronological stages 7:54
The word ‘Diin’ has been specifically used in the sense of ‘Law’ as ‘Diin-il-Malik’ meaning ‘law of the king’ 12:76. It conveys the sense of religion which is again a set of laws 110:2. The final religion is Al-Islam i.e. the final ‘law’ of Allah 3:19 which is perfect 5:3. Nothing can be added to or subtracted from it, based on it people will be judged on the day of judgment and rewarded or punished and no other religion (Law) will be accepted by Allah (SWT) 3:85. This ‘Law’ is to be understood for its proper implementation 9:122 and propagated 2:193 so that it prevails over all other religions 9:33 but with no compulsion 2:256. Everything in the creation, willingly or unwillingly follows the law of Allah (SWT) 3:83, His law prevails for ever 16:52. The word ‘Dayn’ from the same root alphabets means ‘Loan’ 2:282 which also involves laws for repayment. Diin summarily means ‘Law’. Al-Islam’ is the Law for the peaceful existence of humanity just like the law of gravitation for the peaceful existence of the whole universe. Yawm-i-ddiin is also known as the period hereafter 2:8, day of resurrection 2:85, the great day 10:15, 11:3, encompassing day 11:84, the day which will be witnessed 11:103, the day account of deeds will be established 14:41, distressful day 11:77 the day, timing of which is known to Allah (SWT) only 15:38 barren day 22:55, the day of separation 37:21, the day of account 38:16, threatening day 50:20, the promised day 85:2 the day of coming out (of the earth) 50:42, a day of difficulty 54:8, day of gathering 64:9, the day of manifestation of misappropriations 64:9 real day 78:39, weighty day 76:27 etc.
The associated noun is ‘Abd’ translated as ‘slave’ who is a person under someone’s control, having no power on anything 16:75. We are required to serve only one God 9:31 i.e. Allah (SWT) as slaves 21:25, 51:56 and not to associate partners with Him 13:36 making our religion exclusively for Him 39:11. The whole creation including the angels 43:19 are slaves of Allah (SWT) 19:93 . Polytheists serve and worship besides Allah (SWT) things which do not have control on any thing 5:76, 16:73, 26:71, 29:17. Many of the objects of worship are just names 12:40. ‘Ibadat’ 4:172 conveys the sense of serving or worshipping Allah (SWT) as an obedient slave, i.e. practically implementing the Holy Quran in the manner illustrated by prophet Muhammed (PBH).
An associated word ‘I’aanat’ means ‘help’ 25:4 and ‘Al-Musta’aan’ an Attribute of Allah (SWT) means ‘One Whose help is sought’ 12:18. Other derivatives from the same root alphabets are associated with worship 1:4 patience and prayer 2:153, righteousness and guarding against evil 5:2.
‘Huda’ from the same root alphabets means Guidance 2:2. Guidance could be towards some thing good 40:38 as well as towards something bad 22:4. Real guidance towards good is only Allah’s guidance 2:120 which is written down in the Holy Quran 2:185 and demonstrated by prophet Muhammed (PBH) 33:21 the last messenger of Allah 33:40. Following the guidance contained in the Holy Quran in the manner illustrated by prophet Muhammed (PBH) is following the straight path leading to paradise 64:9, 33:71. Contrary to this, following the evil suggestions of the devil leads one to hell’ 22:4. Allah (SWT) guides whom He Wills to 42:52 and this guidance of Allah (SWT) is His favour on those guided 49:17. Had He Willed He could have guided the whole humanity towards the right path 13:31 Allah (SWT) created everything, He set up the equilibrium then programmed it and finally guided it to follow His programme. 87:1-3 ‘Al-Hadi’ is an Attribute of Allah (SWT) meaning ‘the Guide’ 25:31 and ‘Hadiyyah’ means a ‘gift’ 27:35, in view of this ‘Hidaayat’ meaning guidance 3:8 towards good is a gift of Allah (SWT) 49:7-8.
This word is mostly used in the sense of path 19:43 and sometimes in the sense of road 7:86.
A straight line is the shortest distance between two points and in this sense ‘Mustaqiim’ could mean the shortest distance to the destination. Qistaas-il-Mustaqiim means a balance whose horizontal rod or bar is straight i.e. correct. 17:35.
Siraat-al-Mustaqiim would therefore mean the correct path whose distance to paradise is the shortest. Allah (SWT) guides to the straight path whom He wills 10:25, those who believe 22:54 and who hold firmly to Him 3:101. Being on the straight path is worshipping or serving Allah (SWT) 36:61 i.e. implementing the Quran 14:1 whereby one enters His Mercy and Grace 4:176. Prophet Muhammed (PBH) was himself on the straight path 36:4 and he invited 23:73 and guided others towards it 42:52-53. The devil waits on the straight path to mislead human beings 7:16. We are thus required to implement the Quran in accordance with the instructions of prophet Muhammed (PBH) avoiding the trap of the devil, this summarily is being on Siraat-al-Mustaqiim leading to paradise.
‘You have favoured’ The related noun ‘Nimat’ means favour, blessing, beneficence, kindness etc.) Allah’s (SWT) Nimat is associated with sailing of ships 31:31, stopping the enemies of believers from attacking them 5:11, victory of believers 33:9, brotherhood 3:103, grace 3:171, happiness 88:8-9, comfort and joy 44:27, guidance 2:150, gratitude 54:35, guarding against evil 16:30, good reward 18:31, service and turning to Allah (SWT) 38:30, Islam 5:3, paradise 52:17 etc. We cannot count the favours of Allah (SWT) 16:18.
A derivative of the same root alphabets ‘Ni’ma’ meaning excellent is associated with Attributes of Allah (SWT) like: Trustee 3:173, Guardian and Helper 8:40, One Who responds 37:75 etc. The opposites of ‘Nimat’ are harm 17:83, evil 3:174, loss 11:10, straitening 89:16, ingratitude 14:28, transgression and hell 82:13-14 etc. The Quran clearly categorizes those who receive the favours of Allah (SWT): “And whoever obeys Allah and the messenger, then such (people) will be with those whom Allah has favoured, from among the prophets and the truthful and the witnesses (martyrs) and the righteous and those are members of a beautiful company”. 4:69. We are required to exhibit gratitude for the favours of Allah (SWT) 16:114.
Other derivatives; After 4:119, change 13:11, other 4:56, other than 2:173, without 2:61, raid 100:3 etc.
‘Gazab’ means anger 2:90, Allah (SWT) is angry with one who is an open infidel 16:106, one who serves false deities 5:60, hypocrites and polytheists 48:6, who reject Allah’s (SWT) book 2:90, calf worshippers 7:152, who turn their backs during war with infidels 8:16, one who kills a believer intentionally 4:93, who argue against Him 42:16 and with the transgressors 20:81. The opposite of anger is forgiveness 42:37. The reward of those who earn the anger of Allah (SWT) is hell 4:93, 48:6.
These are the infidels 2:108, polytheists 4:116, those who disobey Allah (SWT) and His messenger 33:36, those who stop people from the path of Allah (SWT) 4:167, 14:3, those who follow their desires without guidance from Allah (SWT) 28:50, those who are unjust 19:38, those who are mislead by the devil 4:60 etc. Words associated with ‘Zalaalt’ 2:16 meaning error or going astray are : loss 11:21, forgetting 20:52, distress 20:123 disobedience 33:36, punishment 34:8 destruction 47:8, madness 54:24, denial 56:51 etc.The opposite words are guidance 14:4 and truth 10:32.
This word conveys the sense of writing 2:282, book 2:79, prescription 6:12, decree 9:51, ordinance 9:36, religious law ordering something 2:183, record 10:21 and an inventory of everything and every event in the universe pertaining to past, present and future 22:70, 34:3 (There are more than 30 verses of the Quran on this subject). At present we are having computers which help us in maintaining and displaying such records at unimaginably high speed, for instance, the maintaining and displaying of account numbers, deposits, with drawls and balance amounts of account holders by banks. Is it difficult for Allah (SWT) to arrange for the maintenance and display, on the day of judgment, of the records of deeds of all human beings, when He is known to be the Fastest at settling accounts 6:62
The word ‘Al Kitaab’, in one or the other of the many senses conveyed by it, is associated with : reading 17:93, learning 68:37, study and implementation 2:121, teaching and wisdom 2:129, knowledge 7:52, light (Noor) 5:15, guidance 2:2 explanation 41:3, balance 42:17, distinction (between right and wrong) 2:53, judgment 6:115, truth 2:176, prophethood 3:79, sending down (Nuzuul) 5:48, belief 42:52, admonition 7:145, reminder 21:10, statements (Hadiis) 39:23 signs (Aayaat) 15:1, Mercy 6:155, Quran 2:2, Torah 2:44, Injeel 2:113, speaking 45:29, something established 98:3, Might 41:41, with respect to truth, Quran, guidance, judgment etc. the opposite sense is conveyed by ‘shakk’ and ‘Rayb’ meaning ‘doubt’ 42:14.
It is associated with temptation and deception 57:14, disease of the heart 24:50,falsehood 29:48,going astray and being extravagant 40:34.etc.
Derivatives of the same root alphabets convey the sense of physical protection 16:81, safety from physical torture 66:6, safety from selfishness 59:9, being careful 3:28, restraint from doing something 2:179, fearing Allah (SWT) 2:196 etc.
Muttaqiin are therefore those persons who guard themselves against all evils due to fear of Allah because He is All-Powerful to punish them. This feeling of restraint is known as ‘Taqwaa’ 2:197.
‘Taqwaa’ is associated with the following good qualities: belief 2:103, Quran 69:48, obeying Allah (SWT) and His messenger (PBH) and the consequent success 24:52, submission and salat 6:71-72, doing good 3:172, amending 7:35, giving charity and accepting that which is good 92:5-7, justice 5:8, righteousness 5:2, forgiveness 74:56, patience 3:120, fear of hell 39:16 pleasing Allah 9:109 etc.
Things which oppose ‘Taqwaa’ are sin 2:206, 38:28, infidelity 13:35 etc. ‘Taqwaa’ resides in the hearts 49:3 and this feeling should generate good deeds: 2:2-5, 2:177, 3:133-135, 9:44, 39:33 etc.
Allah (SWT) orders us to fear Him 3:102, 64:16. When Muttaqiin are disturbed by the evil suggestions of the devil they remember Allah (SWT) then they see aright 7:201.
The benefits of Taqwaa are that one is given the power of distinction between right and wrong, evils are wiped off and forgiven 8:29, his affair is made easy 65:4, he is blessed from the sky and the earth 7:96. Allah (SWT) is with the Muttaqiin 16:128, 3:76 and they are the most honoured 49:13 finally their destination is paradise 52:17-18.
Belief is the translation of ‘Iimaan’ 2:108. Derivatives of the same root alphabets convey the following meanings: safety 2:239, peace 4:91, security 7:97, trust (faith) 12:11, keeping deposits of others in safety 2:283, certainty 2:260, belief in Allah, the hereafter, angels, books and Prophets .2:177, trustworthiness 26:107 etc. A Mumin i.e. a believer is required to possess all these qualities. ‘Iimaan’ like ‘Taqwa’ resides in the heart 49:7 and 14. ‘Iimaan’ is an internal condition and ‘Islam’ is its expression. Good qualities associated with ‘Imaan’ are :-Submission 33:22, graceful acknowledgment of Allah (SWT) 4:147, trust in Him 10:84, guarding against evil 2:103, righteousness 6:48, repentance 19:60, guidance 2:137, patience 3:200, peace in remembrance of Allah (SWT) 13:28, love 19:96, light (Noor) 2:257, strengthening through the spirit 58:22, tranquility 48:4 etc. Bad qualities which oppose ‘Iimaan’ are:- Infidelity and polytheism 40:12, hypocrisy 57:13, corruption 38:28, transgression 3:110, foolishness 2:13, lack of understanding 63:3, fear 106:4, evil deeds 40:58, lie 61:2 crime 83:29, loss 6:12, insecurity 29:67 distress, anxiety, sorrow 3:154, injustice 6:82, compulsion 10:99 etc.
‘Al Mumin’ is an Attribute of Allah (SWT) 59:23 through which He grants security, safety and peace. He is the One Who is Reliable, Trustworthy, Whose existence is certain and in Whose existence and Attributes we are required to believe with certainty.
The opposite of which is ‘seen’, Allah (SWT) has knowledge of both 6:73. All the items of belief, except the Quran, are unseen at present. Remote past 11:49 and future 7:188 too are unseen.
All those things which are existing at present but hidden from our view or comprehension are also classed as ‘Gayb’ i.e. ‘unseen’. 12:52. This word also conveys the sense of absence 27:20, 82:16.
In many of the verses of the holy Quran, derivative of the same root alphabets convey the sense of establishing something: establishing account of deeds 14:41, Torah and Injeel 5:68, agreement 9:7, law 9:36, salat 2:3 etc. The derivatives are used with ‘salat’ meaning establishment of salat (Worship) at numerous places. Any establishment needs an organization, a process, place, timings of operation etc. We shall Insha Allah refer to these items under the title ‘salat’.
The message of Shuaib (PBH) to his people was: “O my people serve/worship Allah, there is no god for you other than Him...” 11:84 In reply to this his people asked him, “O Shuaib does your worshipping (salaatuka) enjoin on you (the condition) that we should give up that which our fathers worshipped (ya’-budu).......”. 11:87. Here the word ‘salaat’ appears to refer to the process of ‘worshipping’ Allah (SWT) adopted by Shuaib (PBH) which was obviously different from the process of worshipping idols. ‘Salaat’ thus conveys the sense of ‘The formal process of worshipping Allah (SWT)’.
It is conveyed through the holy Quran that whosoever is in the universe is obedient to Allah (SWT) 2:116, they all bow down to Him 16:49, 22:18 and glorify Him 62:1. We too offer ‘salaat’ in obedience to the orders of Allah (SWT) 2:110 and during the salaat we perform the ‘sajda’ i.e. bow down or prostrate 22:77 glorifying Him 48:9 by pronouncing ‘Subhana Rabbiyal A ‘ala’ We are informed through the Holy Quran that every one in the universe knows its ‘Salaat’ and ‘Tasbiih’24:41. Here the word ‘salaat’ appears to mean ‘The process of submission to Allah (SWT)’ which consists of being busy obeying His orders (‘Tasbih’ is derived from the same root alphabets as ‘sabha’ which also means ‘being busy’ 73:7 and the word ‘sajada’ means ‘bowing down’). The word ‘salawaat’ and other derivatives from the same root alphabets convey the sense of ‘Rahmat’ meaning ‘Mercy’ 2:157, 33:43,33: 56 ‘Salaat’ can therefore be defined as ‘A formal procedure of emotional, mental and physical submission for worshipping Allah (SWT) seeking His Mercy’.
We are ordered to monitor our salaat 2:238 being constant at it 70:23, ordering our people to do so 20:132, be regular at the Friday congregational worship 62:9 and shorten the salaat during wars 4: 101-102, salaat is to be offered for remembering Allah (SWT) 20:14 keeping our voice low 17:110 and observing proper timings 11:114, 17:78 after performing wazu 5:6. Ibrahim (PBH) prayed for making him and his off-spring establishers of salaat 14:40. Items which are associated with salaat are : Truth 75:31, sacrifice 108:2, peace 33:56, belief 2:3, 9:18, zakat 2:43, patience and help 2:45, remembrance of Allah (SWT) 4:103 guarding against evil 6: 72, 30:31, spending 8:3, obeying Allah (SWT) and His messenger 9:71, seeking Allah’s (SWT) attention 13:22, serving Allah (SWT) 20:14, doing good 21:73 humility 23:2, Quran 29:45, 35:29, enjoining good, forbidding bad 31:17, fearing Allah (SWT) 35:18, responding to Allah (SWT) 42:38 merciful turning of Allah (SWT) 58:13, loan to Allah (SWT) 73:20, being upright 98:5, time for rest 24:58 etc.
Things which spoil salaat are :- Intoxicants 4:43 lethargy 4:142, 9:54, lust 19:59, trade 24:37, heedlessness 107:5 etc. Benefits of salaat are : it keeps one away from indecency (shameful deeds) and things not recognized (as good) 29:45, hearts find peace and tranquility through it 13:28, it is one of the important items which will help in achieving paradise 23:1-11.
Derived from the word ‘Rizq’ which is something that sustains life 30:40 like air, water 45:5, food 50:9, 2:60 etc. which are produced by the involvement and interaction of the sky and the earth (35:3). It sometimes conveys the sense of wealth, because it is through wealth that we can purchase commodities which can sustain life and which we are ordered to spend in the cause of Allah (SWT) for sustaining the poor 2:254. Martyrs 3:169 and those in paradise 2:25 too are provided with sustenance which is similar to what we are provided with in this world. Rizq is associated with means of livelihood 15:20 and clothing 2:233. It is Allah (SWT) who sustains life through ‘Rizq’ 11:6 bestowing more on some and less on others 13:26. He is the best of providers 62:11, in the sense that what others provide is only from that which He provide them. One of the Attributes of Allah (SWT) is ‘The Provider 51:58’ Al Razzaaq’.
Infaq means ‘spending’ not charity and this is done through what Allah (SWT) has provided 2:3 because we own nothing, everything belongs to Him 14:2, we are just custodians of His provisions and we have to obey His orders while spending: As spending does not always mean charity, it could be for a good cause or a bad cause. Spending could be on wordly items like agriculture 18;42, family 4:34, divorced women 65:6-7 and in the path of Allah (SWT) 2:262. We are to spend on parents, relatives, orphans, needy, wayfarers etc. 2:215 that which is good 2:267, in excess of our essential needs 2:219 and that which we love 3:92 (for instance wealth). We may hide and spend or spend openly 13:22, we should neither be extravagant nor niggardly 25:67. We should spend in prosperity and adversity 3:134, day and night 2:274, willingly 2:184 seeking Allah’s (SWT) attention for our own good 2:272. That which we spend in the way of Allah (SWT) will be paid back to us 8:60. We should not spend bad things 2:267, should not stress our obligation on, should not annoy those on whom we spend and we should not spend to show people 2:264. We should not spend on stopping people from Allah’s (SWT) path 8:36, and we should not spend unwillingly 9:54. Items associated with ‘Infaaq’ i.e. spending are salat 2:3 patience, truth, obedience 3:17 good 2:267 and 272, righteousness 3:92, bad 2:267, show off 4:38, willingness and unwillingness 9:53. The opposites of ‘Infaaq’ are hoarding 9:34, and holding back i.e. not spending 17:100.
This word and other derivatives from the same root alphabets like Nazzala, Anzala, Nuzzila, Nunazzil etc. have been used for the sending down of the Quran 2:185 along with Jibriel (PBH) 2:97 also known as Ruuh-ul Amiin (the trustworthy spirit) 26:192-196 and Ruuh-ul-Qudus (the holy spirit) 16:102. The Quran is stated to be sent down as Nuuram-mubiin (clear light) 4:175. Nuur meaning light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In view of this it appears that the Quran was telecommunicated by Allah (SWT) to prophet Muhammed (PBH) through the agency of Jibriel (PBH) who being trustworthy and pure, brought it down from Lawhim-Mahfuuz 85:21-22 as it was without any falsehood entering it 17:105, 41:42, 15:9, These derivatives have also been used for the sending down of miracles 6:37, 26:4, Towraah, Injiil 3:3 book, wisdom 2:231, balance 42:17, clear proofs, guidance 2:159, angels with orders from Allah (SWT) 16:2, 65:5 and 12 and 53:13, unseen forces 9:26, devils 26:221-222, authority 7:71 peace and tranquility 3:154, 9:26, 48:4 etc. In the material world these derivatives have been used for sending down of water as rain 29:63, which gives life to the dead earth and thus provides food 45:5, 40:13, provision 42:27 and for punishment 2:59, 29:34.
Few derivatives have been used for descending from a higher place, on the earth itself, to a lower level as in the case of alighting from a ship 23:29, coming down from fortresses 33:26, providing manna and quails to the children of Israel 20:80.
The derivative ‘Nuzula’ is used in the sense of a gift or entertainment 3:198, 32:19, 18:107. Is it in the sense of gift that few of the derivatives are used for sending down of good refering to the Holy Quran 2:105, sending down of cattle 39:6, of clothing 7:26, of iron 57:25, and things from the treasures with Allah (SWT) 15:21. Does sending down of iron refer to the sending it down from the sun from which the earth is supposed to have originated and evolved along with other planets? Iron cannot be synthesized on earth, therefore does this verse throw light on the origin of the earth. Manaazil is used for the stages of the moon 10:5.
Derivatives of ‘Nazala’, in general, indicate movement in the downward direction, ‘Yanzil’ meaning comes down or descending is opposite of ‘ya’-Ruj’ meaning goes up or ascending 57:4.
Other derivatives Takhir, Aakhar, Ukhraa, Akhkhar, Taakhkhar etc convey the sense of postponement, giving time 15:5, 17:62, 4:77, second time 20:55, other 5:27, last 53:20, behind 3:153, delay as opposed to hastening 2:203, remain behind as opposed to advance 74:37, future as opposed to past 93:4, not to prefer or leave behind as opposed to prefer or send before 82:5 and life after death as opposed to life of this world 2:86.
These derivatives in general, convey the sense of next to or after something. In view of this ‘Aakhirat’ would mean the period after death which obviously starts immediately after one’s death. Those who are certain of the life after death 2:4, the reward and punishment in paradise or hell, are those who guard against evil, they are on guidance and successful 2:2-5 because they will be in paradise 16:30-31. Contrary to this those who do not believe will be severely punished both here and in the hereafter 3:56. Angels are friends, in this world and in the hereafter, of those who say “Our Fosterer is Allah”, and are firmly established on it 41:30-32.
We are invited to reflect on this world as well as the hereafter 2:219-220, probably on the comparative benefits and harm :- Provision of this world is comparatively little whereas the hereafter is better for those who guard against evil 4:77, there will be a severe punishment for the infidels who love this world more than the hereafter 14:2-3, for one who intends the reward of his good deeds to be given in the hereafter, it will be increased and given and for one who intends that the reward of his good deeds be given in this world itself, Allah (SWT) will give what He wills and to whom He wills but there will be no portion for him in the hereafter 17:18-19, 42:20.
The message we get from the above verses of the Quran is, that we should believe and act in accordance with the Quran and teachings of Prophet Muhammed (PBH)and prefer to recieve the reward of our good deeds in the hereafter and not in this world but at the same time we should pray for good things to be given both in this world and the hereafter and safety from punishment, striving accordingly 2:201-202 because it is clearly stated in the Quran that the adornment and the good things from the provision of Allah (SWT) are not unlawful 7:32.
Allah (SWT) states:” We help all, these (i.e. believers as well as those (i.e. infidels), from the bounty of your Fosterer, and the bounty of your Fosterer is not confined”17:20. What the believers or the infidels possess in this world is not the reward of their good deeds but something that Allah(SWT) has provided for testing them: 6:165, 18:7, 20:131, 2:155, 3:186, 8:28.
Yaqiin means certainty. We are required to be certain of the life after death 2:4 and meeting our Fosterer Allah(SWT) 13:2
Certainty is associated with truth 56:95, knowledge 102:5, knowledge of the kingdom of the skies and the earth 6:75, seeing and hearing 32:12, 102:7, insight, mercy 45:20, service/worship 15:99, salaat and zakat 31:4, guidance, patience 32:24, news 27:22.
The opposite of certainty appears to be ‘Zann’ meaning doubt or conjecture 45:32.
These are the believers 23:1-11, those who purify themselves 87:14, those who fear Allah (SWT), seek His nearness and strive in His way 5:35, 2:189, those who avoid devilish works 5:90, those who are firm when they meet the enemies of Islam in war and remember Allah (SWT) much 8:45, those who bow down, prostrate, worship Allah (SWT) and do good 22:77, those believing men and women who keep their looks down, guard their private parts, the women who do not expose their beauty and those who turn to Allah (SWT) 24:30-31, those who seek the Grace of Allah(SWT) and remember Him much 62:10, those who invite towards and enjoin good and forbid that which is bad 3:104, those whose weight of good deeds in heavy 7:8, those who believe in and follow prophet Muhammed (PBH), honour him, help him and follow the Quran 7:157, those who give their dues to relatives, the needy and the wayfarers and seѥk the Attention of Allah (SWT) 30:38, those who do not love the resisters of Allah(SWT) and His messenger (PBH) 58:22, those who guard against evil 2:2-5, those who are saved from the selfishness of their souls 59:9. Those who are not successful are those who fabricate a lie against Allah (SWT), deny His signs and are unjust 6:21, 10:69, criminals 10:17, magicians 10:77, polytheists and infidels 23:117. The opposite of success is failure 91:9-10.
Kufr means rejection 21:94, kaafir means an infidel 2:217 who does not or will not believe 2:6, who does not believe in Allah (SWT), His angels, His books, His messengers and the life after death wherein one will be rewarded for his good deeds or punished for the evil he did 4:136. Iblis, the devil, is a kaafir 2:34.
Allah (SWT) will not give the infidels a way of dominance over the believers 4:141. He is their enemy 2:98, He does not love them 3:32, He has set a seal on their hearts 7:101, they are turned away from His way 13:33 and will face a painful punishment 9:3. Owners of Divine books too exhibit infidelity 2:105. The guardians and friends of the infidels are false deities 2:257. Infidels stop people from the path of Allah (SWT) 4:167 spending their wealth for this purpose 8:36. They equate others with Allah (SWT) 6:1, They are the worst creatures 8:55. They kill prophets and those who enjoin justice 3:21, make a distinction between Allah (SWT) and His messengers 4:150 and they do not judge on the basis of the divine books (Quran) 5:44. Polytheists too are infidels 9:17.
We are advised not to be friends of those infidels who mock at Islam 5:57, if circumstances compel us to keep friendly relations with them, we are advised to be careful 3:28. At the same time we are not forbidden to be kind and just to those of the infidels who do not fight with us on account of our religion nor drive us out of our houses 60:8-9. We should not obey the infidels and on the contrary, should strive against them 25:52. Angels will strike their faces and their backs while causing them to die, saying. “Taste the punishment of burning” 8:50. One who exchanges belief for infidelity, goes astray from the balanced way 2:108. Infidelity is associated with the denial of the signs of Allah (SWT) 2:39, polytheism 40:42 hypocrisy 9:97, glamour of the world 2:212, injustice 4:168, falsehood 47:3, transgression 2:99, 50:24, 80:42, devils 19:83, rebellion 5:64, deception 67:20, disease of the heart 74:31, considering oneself great 39:59, betrayal 22:38, 31:32, sin 2:276 etc.
The opposite of ‘kufr’ (infidelity) is ‘Iimaan’ (belief) 2:253 and ‘Shukr’ (gratitude) 27:40.
‘Kafara’ also means to be ungrateful 27:40 i.e. not to acknowledge the obligations of others or not to accept them as obligers. ‘Kuffaar’ means farmers 57:20 and ‘Kaffara’ means wiping off or removal of the ill effects of sin or expiation of oaths 5:89 or compensation for covering up some fault 5:95. The farmer sows a seed and covers it up with the soil.
‘Kufr’, meaning infidelity, too conveys the sense of hiding or covering up the inherent belief 7:172-174 in all human beings, by external rejection. [before coming into this world all human beings were made to bear witness that Allah (SWT) alone is our Fosterer so that we may not become polytheists who are also infidels 7:172-174].
Extracts of some verses of the Quran in which derivatives of the same root alphabets are used are given below to show the similarity in the meanings they convey: “The rich do not give away their provision to their slaves so that they may become equal (Sawaaa-’un) to them” 16:71. “Is the blind man equal (yastawi) to one who sees?” 13:16. “He saw him in the middle of hell”. 37:55. “Infidels will wish that they were leveled (tusawwa) with the ground” 4:42. ‘Saawaa’ is used for leveling the space between two mountains”. 18:96. ‘Astawa’ is used for balancing on the ship 23:28 and ‘tastawuu’ is used for balancing on cattle back while riding 43:12-13. ‘Sawwiya’ is used for putting fingers in order 75:4.
These derivatives convey the meaning of: equal, middle, level, balance, order etc. Something in the middle is equidistant from the borders, something leveled is equal in height, something in balance or in order is in equilibrium. Thus all these derivatives convey somewhat similar meanings. In view of this the derivative ‘Astawaa’ used in various verses of the Quran referring to the skies and the earth would mean setting up the balance or order or equilibrium 2:29, 7:54, 79:28 after the chaos of the ‘Big Bang’ which marks the birth of the present universe.
Naziir’ means a ‘Warner’ 5:19. “Anzara” means ‘to warn’ 46:21. Warning is informing people of the harmful consequences of their bad deeds 71:1, 34:46. Things of which we are warned : Thunderbolt 41:13, blazing fire 92:!4, punishment 78:40, 18:2, day of meeting 40:15, day of gathering 42:7, day on which hearts will choke 40:18.
Whom to warn : Quarrelsome people 19:97, heedless 36:6, those who say Allah has a son 18:4, unjust 46:12, family and close relatives 26:214. Those who listen to the warning : who fear their Fosterer 35:18, 36:11, who fear the day of judgment 6:51, 79:45, who are alive 36:70. Those on whom there will be no effect: Infidels 10:101. We are required to warn through the Quran 6:19, 25:1, the summarized statement of warning is : There is no god except Allah (SWT) so fear Him 16:2. The purpose of warning should be guidance 32:3. Warning is associated with punishment 54:16. The opposite of warning is conveying of good news 5:19.
A seal neither allows anything to go in nor anything to come out. Seals are set on the hearts/minds, and hearings of the infidels and there is a covering over their eyes, as a result of this they do not receive any religious information contained in the Quran, consequently they do not respond and thus reject it, the result of which is punishment 2:7.
On the day of judgment Allah (SWT) will seal the mouths of such criminals and will make their hands speak and their feet give evidence of the evil they did 36:65. In paradise people will be given a pure drink sealed with musk. We are ordered to put an effort to achieve it 83:25-26. Muhammed (PBH) is the seal of prophethood (Khaatam-an-Nabiyyiin) 33:40. This means that no new messenger or message of Allah will come after him. The Quran is thus the final communication of Allah, a ‘Seal’ on the Divine messages in which no falsehood can enter and from which nothing can be removed 15:9, 18:27, 41:42.
Some of the derivatives of these root alphabets are used for :- Turning back of the human beings towards Allah (SWT) 29:21, turning of men during sleep 18:18, returning of human beings 48:12, movement of human beings 3:196, movement of hands 18:42, alternation of day and night 24:44, turning of hearts 24:37, turning of attention 22:11, turning away from Islam 3:144, upsetting of affairs 9:48, turning away of sight 67:4, etc.
The opposite of movement is rest 47:19. ‘Qulb’ is therefore something which is always in movement, restless as opposed to being motionless or at rest. It is probably due to the continuous restlessness (beating) that the word ‘Qulb’ is used for ‘heart’ which is located in the chest 22:46 and there is only one heart 33:4. There are many verses of the Quran where the word ‘Qulb’ is used in the sense of ‘mind’ associated with the brain 22:46 which in turn is associated with knowledge 9:93 and understanding 7:179. It may be noted that the heart is an organ which pumps blood. After oxygenation in the lungs the blood reaches all the parts of the body, including the brain, supplying oxygen, salts, food etc. Consciousness is also dependent upon the integrity of blood supply to the brain. Whenever the mental activity is quickened by any intellectual or emotional change, there is an instantaneous change in the blood supply which is regulated by the heart. Things which effect the brain, like thoughts, happiness, sorrow, worry etc, thus effect the heart instantaneously. This might be the reason for using the word ‘Qulb’ to mean ‘heart’ as well as ‘mind’.
The good things associated with Qulb are :- Being defectless 37:84, turning in repentance 50:33, Quran 2:97, softening of, towards the remembrance of Allah (SWT) 39:23, belief 58:22, 49:7 & 14, guidance 64:11, humble submission 22:54, 57:16, strengthening 8:11, 28:10, tranquility 48:4, satisfaction 2:260, 13:28, restrain, guarding against evil 22:32, 49:3, pity and mercy 57:27, unity among Muslims 3:103, purification 3:154, cleanliness 5:41, reconciliation 9:60, fear of Allah (SWT) 8:2, inclination 66:4 etc.
Evils associated with Qulb are :- Deviation from right path 3:7-8, no entry of good things because of cover 2:88, locks 47:24 and seal 42:24, 45:23, 41:5 on hearts along with ears and eyes 2:7. Pride, rebellion 40:35, sin 2:283, heedlessness 18:28, disease 33:32, terror 3:151, fear of death 33:10, horror, 34:23, boredom 39:45, hardening of 2:74, 39:22, disunity 59:14, ill feelings 59:10, calf-worship 2:93 regret 3:156, hypocrisy 3:167, 9:77, rejection 16:22, refusal 9:8, anger 9:15, rage 48:26, doubt 9:45, pastime 21:3, ignorance 23:63, rust 83:14 choking 40:18, bad things made to appear good 48:12, evil secrets 2:204.
Qulb is responsible for intentions 2:225, 33:5.
Allah (SWT) comes in between man and his Qulb 8:24 and He knows that which is in our hearts 33:51.
Our hearing is through our ears 7:195, it is associated with seeing 32:12, 76:2 knowledge 2:127, heart/mind 2:7 and with understanding 25:44, the opposite of which is deafness 10:42. The derivatives of these root alphabets sometimes convey the sense of ‘listen’, meaning obey or respond 6:36, 2:285, the opposite of which is disobedience 2:93. Some people hear but do not understand because of the seal on their hearts/minds 7:100, 45:23 and heaviness in their ears 6:25. We should be thankful to Allah (SWT) for His gift of hearing 16:78. Our hearing will be questioned, whether we used to hear good things or bad things 17:36 and it will bear witness on the day of resurrection probably as a sound record in our memory, like an audio tape, giving evidence of what we used to hear, the Quran or music 41:20-22, people will hear in the life after death on the day of resurrection 50:23, the roaring in the hell 67:7, 25:12 and in paradise they will not hear useless talk 88:11.
When the Quran is recited we are required to listen to it observing silence 7:204. Divine communication ‘Wahi’ was audible to Musa (PBH) 20:13.
Allah (SWT) is One who hears 2:127, listens to our prayer 3:38 i.e. accepts our prayers being the Nearest Hearer 34:50. He has full control on our hearing 10:31 and if He wills He can take away our hearing 2:20.
The dead do not hear 27:80 nor those who are in the graves 35:22. The Jinn heard the Quran 46:29, 72:1, the devils have been kept away from hearing it 26:212. The high esembly is not audible to the devils 37:6-10.
Derivatives of these alphabets also convey the sense of watching 28:11, reflection 28:72, 51:20-21, seeing aright 7:201, insight (Quran) 7:203, insight (natural phenomenae) 50:6-8, visual proofs (miracles) 17:102, visibility 10:67. We should be thankful to Allah (SWT) for our sight 16:78. We are ordered to keep our looks down 24:30. Two more words used for sight are mentioned in 7:198. We see with our eyes 7:195 and we cannot see when there is no light i.e. in darkness 2:17. One cannot reflect because of a cover 36:9 or a seal on the sight 16:108. The opposite of sight is blindness 13:16.
Things which are associated with sight are :- hearing 32:12, heart/mind 22:46, information 42:27, guarding private parts 24:30-31. On the day of resurrection, sights will be dazzled 75:7, looks will be down cast 79:9, 68:43, we will be able to see and recognize people 7:47, 70:11. On the day of resurrection or at the time of death eyes will be turned 24:37. The sight or eyes will be questioned as to what they used to see during their life in this world, good things or bad things 17:36, and they will bear witness i.e. give evidence for what all they saw 41:20-22, this might be something like video recording on the memory which may be played along with the sound recording through the ears.
Allah (SWT) is One Who sees 22:61 everything 67:19 but we cannot see him here 6:103, 56:85. He has the power to take away our sight, 2:20, 6:46, 10:31, 36:66.
Other derivatives :- Covering with cloth 11:5, with waves 31:32, night over the day when the earth itself comes in between us and the sun and thus covers it 91:4. In the abstract sense it has been used for covering over eyes 45:23 so that one does not understand even after seeing things clearly, covering of sleep i.e. taking away of consciousness 3:154, 8:11 and probably in the same sense for covering of death 33:19. With respect to the hereafter, it has been used for resurrection/day of judgment probably in the sense of unconsciousness or punishment covering people 88:1, for punishment 12:107, covering from above and below 29:55 and for the fire covering the faces 14:50. All these derivatives convey the sense of covering both in the material and abstract worlds.
Other derivatives :- Pain and suffering experienced by prophet Iyub (PBH) 38:41, torture like the slaughter of the male children of Israel by Firawn 14:6 etc. Those who deserve ‘Azaab’ are the infidels 3:4, 2:90, 11:20 polytheists 50:26, hypocrites, 48:6, unjust 6:47, transgressors and deniers 2:10, 6:49, those cursed 9:68, who earn the anger of Allah (SWT) 16:106, plan evil 35:10, those who go astray 38:26, those who disdain and consider themselves great 4:173, who stop people from the sacred Mosque at Mecca 8:34, who do not spend in the cause of Allah (SWT) 9:34, annoy the prophet (PBH) 9:61, disobey Allah (SWT) 10:15, the sinners 5:18, 3:178, those who speak lie about Allah (SWT) 6:93 and keep away from His remembrance 72:17. People can be punished here or/and in the hereafter 59:3 and the punishment of the hereafter is more severe 13:34.
Punishments are inflicted in this world through unseen forces 9:26 by the head of a state and his people 14:6, through believers on infidels 9:14, 48:25, through natural calamities 26:189, 11:64, 41:17 and there may be exemplary punishments for crimes 24:2. There is a hint regarding punishment in the graves in 9:101. In the hereafter 11:103 there will be the final punishment. The punishment in the hereafter 25:69, will be in hell 25:65, 40:7, 67:6, it will be everlasting 5:37, 10:52, 20:127, 25:65 except as Allah (SWT) Wills 2:284, 7:156.
This punishment involves pain 48:17, severity 65:8, 11:58, evil 6:157 disgrace 4:14, 11:39, shame 6:93 weakening uneasiness 34:5, fire 2:126, 22:4, burning 3:181, boiling water 6:70, heat wave 52:27. It is the devil who invites us towards the blazing fire 31:21 and we are warned about the punishment 54:16 which will be painful 48:17 we should therefore keep the devil away from us and avoid all beliefs and deeds which deserve punishment.
Allah (SWT) states, “What will Allah do (gain) by punishing you if you are grateful and believe”, 4:147, therefore being fearful of His punishment 70:27-28 we should pray for safety from it 2:201, 8:33. It is only Allah (SWT) who can pardon 9:66 and forgive our sins 2:284 being Merciful 3:128, 29:21 to us, if He Wills.
Words used alongwith ‘Aziim’ are respect 22:30, word 17:40, reward 3:172, 65:5 punishment 2:7, disgrace 9:63, distress 21:76, sin 4:48, 56:46, favour 2:105, achievement 4:13, good fortune 28:79, character 68: 4, magic 7:116, plan 12:28, trial 2:49, false charge 24:16, injustice 31:13, astray 4:27, day 6:15, throne 9:129, thing 22:1, Quran 15:87, cities 43:31, news 38:67, sacrifice 37:107, promise 56:76, kingdom 4:54, mountain 26:63, ranks 57:10. The opposite of ‘Aziim’ is ‘Hayyin’ meaning a trifle, a matter of no significance or greatness 24:15.
The word ‘Al-azmu’ from the same root alphabets means ‘bones’ which get weak in old age 19:4. Bones form a basic internal structural frame work. Vertebrates would lose their external form and function if their bones are removed. They are normally not visible and perform their functions from inside, their strength being exhibited by the external form. In this sense they are partly responsible for the quality known as strength, which is essential for life.
‘Aziim’ associated with most of the nouns, appears to convey the sense of the great degree or intensity of some quality or the other and not the size.
Al Aziim is one of the Attributes of Allah 2:255 signifying intensive Greatness compared to ‘Al Kabiir’ probably signifying extensive Greatness.
In the Quran four different words are used for man 1. Ins. 2. Insaan. 3. Annaas and 4. Bashar. Let us study them in this order and see how the Quran explains and differentiates them.
42.1 Ins: The term ‘Aanastu’ derived from these alphabets means ‘I perceive’. 20:10. Perception is knowledge or cognizance by the organs of sense. We are asked to seek permission ‘Tasta’-nisuu’ before entering houses 24:27 so as to make ourselves recognized and develop familiarity. We are ordered to hand over the wealth of orphans to them when we find or recognize ‘aanastum’ in them the capacity for correct judgment 4:6.
Perception, familiarity and recognition are abstract in nature. The same alphabets are used for man as ‘Ins’ probably referring to his psychic personality which is also abstract and not visible and which can be influenced by another invisible being ‘The jinn’ because they are reported to say that human beings sought their protection and they increased these human beings in error 72:6. On the day of gathering too this Jinn will be blamed for misleading human beings to hell 6:128. Ibn-i-Masood (R.A.) reports that the messenger (PBH) of Allah (SWT) said, “There is not one among you who does not have an incharge on him accompanying him one from among the jinn and (one) accompanying him from among the angels. The companions asked. “For you too, O messenger (PBH) of Allah (SWT)”. He replied, “For me too, but Allah (SWT) has helped me against him (jinn), so I am at peace and he enjoins on me nothing but good”. (Muslim) The angel could be our conscience and the Jinn could be the evil desire associated with our psychic personality, which act as opposing forces. Throughout the Quran the word ‘Ins’ meaning man has always been used with the word ‘Jinn’, i.e. it has not been used separately.
Both have been addressed together as a company or assembly of close associates (Ma-shar), indicating their intimacy 55:33. The purpose of creating both is ‘Ibadat’ meaning serving or worshipping Allah (SWT) 51:56. Devils too are from both Jinn as well as human beings 6:112 and both beings will be in hell 7:38 and 179 and in paradise 55:46-77.
All these facts indicate that ‘Ins’ refers to the psychic personality associated with our physical or biological body:- ‘The conscious Self’ also known as the ‘The soul’ The Nafs.
42.2 INSAAN : Insaan, it is stated, that it was created from nothing 19:67, i.e before he was conceived in his mother’s womb (or before the creation of Adam PBH) he was physically or biologically non-existent, then his biological creation was started through mud 15:26 and clay 23:12, 55:14 referring to the origin of man or the food got from the earth which is responsible for the production of sperm and egg. His progeny was created biologically from the sperm 36:77 and something that clings and hangs like a leech 96:2.
Man as ‘Insaan’ has been created weak 4:28. In adversity he prays to Allah (SWT) but when the harm is removed he behaves as if he had not prayed 10:12, he becomes despairing and ungrateful 11:9.
In prosperity he is exultant, and boastful 11:10 and keeps away from praying 17:83. He is unjust 14:34, hasty 17:11, 21:37, 70:19, niggardly 17:100, quarrelsome 18:54 exceeding limits 75:5, rebelling 96:6 displaying ignorance 33:72. The devil is an open enemy of ‘Insaan’ instigating evil 17:53 due to which they fight with each other like animals. He has been bestowed with ‘Nafs’ i.e. consciousness 39:42 which is the driving force and Allah (SWT) knows what this ‘Nafs’ of his whispers to the physical body making it act accordingly 50:16. Knowledge 96:5, 2:255 and speech 55:4 are gifts of Allah (SWT) to man as a biological species which differentiates him from animals. With all these qualities he has to strive and there is nothing for him except that which he strives for and his striving is seen by Allah (SWT) who will reward him accordingly 53:39-41. Even as biological being he has to be good to his parents 29:8, 31:14. On the day of resurrection his bones will be gathered to the extent that even his finger tips will be put in order 75:3-4 i.e. he will be biologically recreated. He will be conscious on that day seeking a place to flee 75:10. He will be informed of all his deeds 75:13 being a witness against his own ‘conscious self’, the Nafs 75:14 which was responsible for all his beliefs and actions. Man has been created to be tested 45:22, 67:2. so that the successful may enjoy in paradise and the failures may be punished in hell.
42.3 Annaas : Human beings as Annaas were created from a single soul (Adam PBH) 4:1, from one male and one female (Adam and Hawwa PBT) 49:13, from the soil 22:5, from which we get our food which in turn produces the sperm and the egg. They were a single community but later they differed 2:213, 10:19. The phase ‘Annaas’ did not originate from mud or clay like ‘Insaan’ or ‘Bashar’. Allah (SWT), having bestowed some inherent qualities in man as a biological species i.e. ‘Insaan’, introduced into him the natural urge to follow Islam 30:30 and sent down Towraah, Injiil etc, Quran being the final Divine revelation 3:3-4, 2:185 for their guidance and sent Muhammed (PBH) the last messenger in the long list of messengers of Allah, to the whole humanity 33:40, 34:28.
The majority of human beings does not know that it is Allah (SWT) who enlarges or straitens their provision for whom He wills 34:36. We are ordered to serve and worship Him to save ourselves from the punishment 2:21. As “Annaas” we are required to guard ourselves against evil 2:187, seek His pleasure 2:207 and reflect 59:21. But among human beings there are many who are foolish 2:142, polytheists 2:165, greedy for long worldly life 2:96, ungrateful 2:243, 40:61, having lusty feelings, liking glamorous worldly things 3:14, transgressors 5:49 because they follow the devil 22:3. When Allah (SWT) makes human beings (Annaas) taste mercy they plan against His message 10:21 and when harm afflicts them they pray to Him, but again when he makes them taste mercy some of them associate partners with Him 30:33. Corruption appears in this world because of the evils of human beings as Annaas 30:41.
Allah (SWT) brings about ups and downs in the lives of human beings to mark out the believers taking witnesses from among them 3:140. On the day of resurrection mankind will stand before Allah (SWT) 83:6, 101:4. The fuel of hell will be human beings and stones 2:24 alongwith the Jinn 11:119, 32:13, therefore we should repeatedly pray for safety from the evils instigated by the devils 114:1-6 and the fire 2:201. ‘Annas’ thus appears to be the ‘Social Man’ obeying and disobeying the orders of Allah (SWT)
42.4 BASHAR : This word used for man appears to convey the sense of ‘News Giver’ like ‘Basheer’ 5:18-19 from the same root alphabets. If we analyse our interactions with others and many of our routine activities, most of the time we are either receiving information from other sources or passing out information to others. Information technology itself has become an important aspect of human life. As Bashar, man was created from mud 15:33 and clay 38:71, the material used for creating Insaan, and from the soil from which was created Annaas 30:20. Bashar meaning ‘News giver’ seems to be a combination of the biological man ‘Insaan’ and the social man ‘Annas’. An additional material used in the creation of Bashar is water 25:54. Nothing has been mentioned about the material of creation of man as ‘Ins’, which again indicates that ‘Ins’ represents the invisible psychic personality of man- the conscious self, ‘The Nafs’. The word Bashar has sometimes been used for ordinary man 16:103 but mostly used for the messengers (PBT) of Allah (SWT) who convey information from Him to human beings 14:10. Jibrill (PBH) takes the form of a Bashar 19:17, he is well known as one who passes information from Allah (SWT) to His messengers (PBT). ‘Bashar’ is thus ‘the information processing man’. The two phases biological ‘Insaan’ and the social ‘Annaas’ appear to coordinate in elevating man to the state of ‘Bashar’ - an information processing being and all the three stages depend upon his psychic personality the Nafs or the conscious self i.e. ‘Ins’. The biological, social and the psychic man in all the three states is susceptible to the influence of the devil. Primitive man and a child appear to be examples of the biological stage - ‘Insaan’; the civilized human race and a mature man the examples of the social stage - ‘Annaas’ and the most advanced stage of human beings conveying information from Allah (SWT) to their own race is represented by His messengers (PBT) known as ‘Basheer’. All the three stages being an expression of the internal ‘Ins’ - the conscious self the ‘Nafs’ the invisible driving force.
The derivatives of these alphabets which convey the sense of saying have been used for Allah (SWT) 2:30 (Qaala) angels here and in the hereafter 2:30, 50:23, human beings here and the hereafter 2:54, 20:125, the Jinn 27:39, the devils here and in the hereafter 7:12, 8:48, 14:22. They have been used for prayer 2:126 as well as asking 5:76, (‘Qul’ meaning ‘ask’ instead of ‘say’).
The hypocrites have been defined as : ‘those who say with their mouth that which is not there in their hearts’ 3:167 i.e, those who deceive. In view of this the term Yukhaadiuun used for hypocrites in 2:9 and 4:142 means; ‘They deceive’.
The word ‘Nafs’ derived from the same root alphabets and a very important item of human life is defined in the following verse of the Holy Quran:
“Allah takes the Anfus (plural of Nafs) at the time of their death, and (He takes the Nafs) of the person who does not die, during his sleep, then He withholds that on which He has decreed death and sends (back) the others till an appointed time. Certainly there are signs in that for a people who reflect”. 39:42.
We are biologically alive during our sleep but unconscious.‘Nafs’ (normally translated as self, soul, mind etc.) is therefore our state of consciousness which is taken away when we are dead or asleep and which is present in us when we are alive and awake and which is responsible for all our deliberate actions. Nafs, with respect to us is the unseen soul, the conscious inner self, our psychic personality named ‘Ins’ meaning ‘the man’ inside the biological man. Nafs is mobile, being present in us when we are alive and awake and going away from us when we are dead or asleep. Nafs is not material in the sense that we cannot recognize it through our physical senses, it is abstract like belief, certainly, happiness, sorrow, knowledge, wisdom etc. and it is not immortal 3:185. A person who is alive and awake is of importance to the society because he is responsible for all his intentions, mental plans, physical actions and their consequences. In this sense the word ‘Nafs’ is also used for the conscious man. ‘The Ins’ or ‘The self’ both in this life 2:233, and the life hereafter 2:48. Nafs in this sense is the driver and the physical body a vehicle 75:14. Nafs is associated with (1) remembrance of Allah (SWT) 7:205. (2) Belief 10:100. (3) Guidance 27:92. (4) Gratitude 27:40. (5) Purification 35:18. (6) Patience 18:28 (7) Earning good and evil 2:281 (8) Fear 20:67 (9) Liking 5:30 (10) Manifesting and hiding 2:284 (11) Secrets 12:77, 33:37 12) Reflection and pondering 30:8 (13) Action 16:111 (14) Striving 29:6 (15) Taking account 17:14 (16) Examining 10:30 (17) Negligence 39:56 (18) Evil desire 79:40, 20:96 (19) Pride 25:21 (20) Injustice 35:32 (21) Whispering 50:16 (22) Niggardliness 47:38 (23) Selfishness 59:9 (24) Infidelity 9:17 (25) Reward and Punishment 20:15 (26) It has no knowledge of the future 31:34 (27) It has a custodian over it 86:4 probably angelic. There are three types of psychic personalities of ‘Ins’. (1) Those who obey only their Nafs ‘An - Nafs - al - ammaarah’ 12:53 (2) Those whose Nafs can distinguish between right and wrong, the pricking conscience An - Nafs - il - lawwaamah 75:2 and (3) Those whose Nafs is peaceful because Allah (SWT) is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him ‘An - Nafs-ul-mutma-innah’ 89:27-30. This may be due to the total surrender of the psychic and the physical personalities to Allah (SWT). The first category may be of those human beings who are in the animal or biological stage as ‘Insan’ the second may be of those who are elevated to the social stage as ‘An-naas’ and the third and the highest stage of ‘Bashar’ or ‘Basheer’ may be of the prophets and messengers of Allah (SWT). see word no.42. Nafs suggests evil things . 5:30, 12:53, 50:16
It is stated in the Holy Quran that all human beings were created from ‘Nafs-i-waahidah’ meaning a single soul, conscious self, psychic personality or Ins meaning man i.e. Adam (PBH) 4:1, 39:6. The word ‘Waahidah’ means a single whole consisting of many units like ‘Maaa-in w-waahid’ meaning one water 13: 4 and ‘ummatanw-waahidah’ meaning one or a single community 2:213. A glass of water contains billion of water molecules and the human community billions of human beings. In view of this ‘Nafs-i-waahidah’ refered to Adam (PBH) would mean his psychic personality containing the psychic personalities of all the human beings to come 7:172 - 174. Nafs or the psychic personality being an abstract entity finds expression in the material or the biological body created from clay, soil, sperm etc. This expression of Nafs, which we have identified as ‘Ins’, through the biological body as ‘Insaan’ is probably indicated in the following verse of the Holy Quran:-
“In whatever form (body) He willed He constituted you (Nafs)” 82:7-8 The psychical personalities made to occupy biological bodies are identified by names. When a human being Mr. X dies in a hospital we normally ask, “Has the body of Mr. X been brought home, we don’t normally ask, “Has Mr. X been brought home” because we know for certain that Mr.X is no longer occupying his body. The name of a person is actually the name of the psychic personality residing inside his body whereas the name on the epitaph on a grave indicates the location of the physical body which Mr. X once occupied. On the day of resurrection the physical or the biological body will be recreated 17:49-52. The entry of the psychic personalities into their respective biological bodies on the day of resurrection seems to be the subject of the following verses :-
“And when the souls (Nufuus) are paired (probably with their respective bodies)” 81:7
“What! when we are dead and become (part of the) soil, (will we then be raised to life again)? That is a return far (from probable). (The answer) “We indeed know that which the earth reduces from them and with us is a protected record”. 50:3-4. The Nafs of Allah (SWT) 5:116, 6:12 is different from that of ours 58:7. Attention is defined as ‘Concentration of Consciousness’ i.e. Nafs. The Person, Face i.e. the Attention of Allah (SWT) is everywhere, on everything all time 2:115. Allah (SWT) is everywhere, on everything, all the time 2:115, Allah (SWT) is Immortal, Ever living 28:88, 55:27, 25:58, He never sleeps and does not get tired 2:255, whereas we human beings get tired, sleep and die 39:42, 3:185. The Nafs or consciousness of Allah (SWT) is universal 4:126, 65:12.
Consciousness and the universal force of gravitation:
It is stated in the Holy Quran : “Allah certainly holds together the skies and the earth lest they get separated ....” 35:41.
According to science this holding together of the heavenly bodies is due to the natural force of gravitation acting between them. It is further stated in the Holy Quran:- “.....and certainly in them (i.e.the rocks) are those which fall down due to the fear of Allah (Khash yat-i-llaah) 2:74. We know that rocks fall down due to the force of gravity of the earth. In view of this, is the universal force of gravitation due to the universal fear of Allah (SWT)? Consciousness counter acts the force of gravity. We are able to stand or walk against the force of gravity of the earth only when we are alive and awak i.e. conscious, the moment we lose consciousness we succumb to the force of gravity of the earth and fall down. The force of gravity is implosive, centripetal acting towards a common center, therefore consciousness which counter acts gravity might be explosive, centrifugal, acting in directions away from a common center. Is this common center the ‘Arsh’ ‘The Throne’ 21:22? Is the fear of Allah (SWT) in the form of the universal force of gravitation counter acted by His own universal consciousness maintaining the observed balance in the universe? Will the universe come to an end the moment this balance is disturbed by Allah (SWT) Himself?
Gravity and sleep : Gravity is associated with mass and consciousness with life. At night, which is made for our rest i.e. sleep 6:60, 25:47, the forces of gravity of the earth and the sun get added up and act in the same direction with respect to us 91:4, 92:1 whereas during the day these forces act in the opposite directions with respect to us. Do we, in general, fall asleep at night due to the added forces of gravity of the earth and the sun which reduces the degree of our consciousness and do we keep awake when the forces of gravity of the earth and the sun act in opposite directions during the day thereby reducing the combined force of gravity and increasing the degree of consciousness? This deserves consideration in view of the fact that both gravity and consciousness are associated with Allah (SWT) and His taking away our Nafs during sleep may mean His making the arrangement described above which would not hold good in the case of death which is not restricted to day or night and which is caused by the angel of death 32:11 who returns us to Allah (SWT).
The derivatives of these alphabets convey the meanings of perceiving/understanding 2:154, realizing 26:113, 6:109, knowing 18:19, recognizing 12:15 etc. They have also been used for poetry 36:69, poets 26:224, for signs and symbols 2:158, monument 2:198, for hair 16:80 and the star Sirius 53:49.
Allah (SWT) heals diseases 26:80, if one is sick then instead of washing parts or whole of the body with water before offering salat one can use dust and wipe his face and hands 4:43, 5:6. If one is sick he should recite as much of the Holy Quran at night as it is easy for him 73:20. Those who are sick are exempted from religious wars 9:91, 48:17, provided they are sincere to Allah (SWT) and His messenger, they are also permitted to postpone fasting in the month of Ramadan for the period of their illness 2:185 and exempted from shaving heads during Hajj or Umrah 2:196. Allah (SWT) increases the disease of those in whose heart is the disease of disobeying Him and His messenger (PBH) 2:10, such people make the Jews and the Christians their friends 5:51-52. The disease in the heart, of disobeying Allah (SWT) and His messenger, is associated with infidelity 74:31 hypocrisy 8:49, devil 22:53, doubt 24:50 spreading rumours 33:60 uncleanliness 9:125 etc. Those who are opposite of such people are the believers 5:52-53, 9:124-125, 47:20.
Words derived from these alphabets also convey the sense of adding 18:25, growing 13:8 and more 50:30. These derivatives have been used for good things like belief and submission 33:22, 9:124, guidance 18:13, knowledge and physique 2:247, 20:114, reward 4:173, humility 17:109 and grace 42:26 as well as bad things like rebellion and infidelity 5:68, error 71:24, 72:6, disease 2:10, hatred 25:60, 35:39, loss 9:47, ruin 11:101, 71:28 punishment 16:88 blazing flame of hell 17:97, sin 3:178 etc. They have also being used for increase in worldly items 74:11-15 and strength 11:52. If one is grateful for the favours of Allah (SWT) He grants more 14:7.
‘Painful’ 4:104. It is also associated with the word ‘Azaab’ meaning painful [see note 40]. ‘Azaab-un-aliim’ in general means ‘painful punishment’ and it is inflicted on infidels 2:104, 4:18, polytheists 9:3-4, hypocrites 4:138, those who deny Allah’s (SWT) message 2:10, who exceed the limits 2:178, who hide that which Allah (SWT) has sent down 2:174, who sell their agreement with Allah (SWT) and their oaths for a small price 3:77, who ascribe a son to Allah (SWT) 5:73, who disdain and consider themselves great 4:173, priests and monks who drive away people from, and who do not spend in, the way of Allah (SWT) and hoard 9:34, who annoy the prophet (PBH) 9:61, who taunt believers on their charity and degrade them 9:79, the unjust 11:102, 14:22, who are friends of devils 16:63, who forge lie against Allah (SWT) making things lawful and unlawful 16:116-117, who go against Prophet (PBH) 24:63, who turn away proudly from the book of Allah (SWT) 31:7 who rebel unjustly 42:42, who is a sinful liar 45:7-8.
Firawn and his chiefs were involved in the painful punishment of drowning in this world 10:88, smoke will come down from the sky as a painful punishment 44:10-11. The painful punishment can be in this world or/and the hereafter 73:12-13, 9:74. To save ourselves from it we should believe in Allah (SWT) and His messenger (PBH) and strive in His way with our wealth and personal efforts, the reward of which is paradise 61:10-13. Allah (SWT) can protect us from the painful punishment 46:31. The opposites of painful punishment are forgiveness, protection 41:43 and Mercy of Allah (SWT) 76:31.
Derivatives of these alphabets in general mean lie 16:62, 18:4-5, denial 39:32, 75:32 and falsehood 12:18, 16:116. Those who are involved in these activities are the infidels 84:22, hypocrites 63:1 criminals 55:43 the unjust 3:94 etc. These people usually deny the messengers (PBT) of Allah (SWT) 6:34, the signs of Allah (SWT) 6:21, the truth in the form of Divine revelation 39:32, life after death 25:11, 74:46. An example of a person who denies religion is given in ch.107 of the Holy Quran: He drives out the orphan, does not propagate the feeding of the poor, who is heedless of his salaat and offers it to be seen by people and refuses even small kindness. On the day of resurrection they will lie against themselves 6:24 and they will be punished in fire 2:39, 92:14-16. ‘Kizb’ meaning lie, denial or falsehood is associated with the heart 53:11 turning away 20:48, refusing 20:56, disobeying 79:21, niggardliness 92:8-9, sin 83:12, 3:11, rebellion 91:11, pride 39:59 transgression 6:49, injustice 7:177, loss 10:95, mockery 26:6, desire 54:3, forging 16:105, erring 56:51, sorrowful state 77:15. The opposite of Kizb is truth 12:27, 27:27, 23:90, 6:66, good 92:9, clear proof 6:57 and belief 7:101.
The derivative ‘Fasaad’ means corruption 8:73 or disorder 23:71. Corruption as defined in The Holy Quran consists of denying the orders of Allah (SWT) being unjust and proud 27:13-14, turning away people from His way, seeking to make it crooked 7:86, dividing people weakening one sect and slaughtering the innocent 28:4, weighing and measuring less than what is due, causing disturbance in the land 11:84-85, Homosexuality, decoity, organizing assemblies for evil 29:29-30, destroying crop and cattle 2:205, murdering (messengers PBT) of Allah (SWT) 27:48-49, etc. Corruption is associated with blood shed 2:30, kings when they conquer 27:34, rebellion 89:6-14, pride 28:83, disbelief 10:40, magic 10:81, breaking of agreement with Allah (SWT), cutting off that which Allah (SWT) has enjoined 2:27. If believers do not mutually guard and help each other then persecution and corruption will spread in the earth 8:73. Allah (SWT) repels some people through others, otherwise corruption would spread 2:251 [whenever there is a war or a riot people turn towards Allah (SWT) if they are kept free from such rivalries they would become fearless and corrupt]. If there were other gods with Allah (SWT) there would have been disorders in the skies and the earth 21:22. There is corruption in the land and sea due to the faults of human beings so that they may face the consequences and turn towards Allah (SWT) 30:41. We are ordered not to spread corruption 7:56. Allah (SWT) does not like those who are corrupt 5:64 for such people the punishment will be increased 16:88. The worldly punishment for those who wage a war against Allah (SWT) and His messenger and strive to cause corruption is that they should be murdered or crucified or their hands and legs should be cut off from opposite sides or they should be sent on exile 5:33. The opposite of corruption and disorder are reform 2:11 and belief and righteous works 38:28.
This word has also been used for land 7:110, 9:2, but mostly it is used for the globe 13000 km in diameter which was created along with other heavenly bodies in six periods (or stages) 7:54 after the Big Bang 21:30.
It appears to have been created as an individual member of the solar system in 2 periods 41:9 during which period it was differentiated into 7 layers 65:12. Allah (SWT) holds it together with other heavenly bodies 35:41. The mountains came into existence and the food was provided in four geological Eras. (1) The Precambrian 600 to 3300 million years back. (2) Paleozoic 230 to 600 million years (3) Mesozoic 63 to 230 million years and Cenozoic, recent times to 63 million years back. These 4 Geological eras appear to be the same as 4 periods (or days) mentioned in the Holy Quran 41:10. Everything is attracted towards the earth 77:25-26. All the southern continents were joined together as ‘Gondwana Land’ and they drifted away to take their present position some 63 and odd million years back, this spreading of the earth is referred to in the Holy Quran 13:3, 79:27-32. Allah (SWT) has provided mountains in the earth for the balance between the elevated land masses and the sea floor, in the absence of which the earth would have been in continuous disturbance. This is known as ‘Isostacy’ 16:15. The earth was hot earlier and has cooled down which involves contracting 13:41. Allah (SWT) has thus made earth habitable for human beings 20:53, 27:61, 78:6-7. All living beings are provided food by Allah (SWT) 11:6, He provides livelihood to us too 7:10, He sends down the water belonging to the earth 11:44 as rain 16:65, 22:63, 80:25-26, He has subdued it 67:15 providing all things for mankind 2:29. Mankind itself was developed from the earth as a growth 11:61, 53:32, 71:17, this may refer to the food from the earth through which the sperm and the egg are produced and through which our bodies grow. Mankind has been made ‘Incharge’ of the earth as ‘Khalifa’ 2:30, 6:165, to be tested for reward or punishment 45:22. Before resurrection Allah (SWT) will bring out a creature from the earth 27:82. Allah (SWT) knows what the earth absorbs from our body after our death, it is in a protected record 50:4 and we will be raised from the earth 20:55, 30:25 when it will split from above us 50:44, 84:3. The earth will be made plain 89:21 after moving away the mountains 18:47, 69:14, 56:4, 73:14 and it will shine with the radiance of its Fosterer and judgment will be given 89:21-22, 39:69, 14:48 when the infidels would wish that the earth were leveled with them 4:42, it will narrate her news 99:4-5. On the day of resurrection the earth will be in the grip of Allah (SWT) and the skies rolled up in His right hand 39:67.
Derivatives of these alphabets convey the meanings of reforming 2:11, reconciliation 2:182, 4:128, amending 6:54, setting things right 47:2, 21:90, righteousness 2:25 etc.
Messengers (PBT) of Allah (SWT) 2:130, 3:39, 3:46, 4:69, 6:84-87 and those who believe and do righteous works 29:9 are the ‘Salihiin’ (The righteous). Things which are associated with such people are belief 6:48, repentance 6:54, 25:71, guarding against evil 7:35, 2:224, pardon 42:40, forgiveness 20:82, making the truth clear 2:160, justice 49:9, good statements 35:10, gratitude to Allah (SWT) 7:189, patience 11:11, guidance 20:82, propagation of Islam 41:33, 103:3, Quran and Muhammed (PBH) 47:2, holding fast to Allah (SWT) 4:146, hoping to meet Him 18:110, pleasing Him 27:19, remembering Him 26:227 being humble before Him 11:23, The benefits of possessing these qualities are : honoured provision 22:50, success 28:67 wiping off of evil 29:7, 64:9, righteous deeds of the SALIHIIN will not be rejected 21:94, they will be made rulers in the earth to establish Islam 24:55, reception of the Rahmat of Allah (SWT) 45:30, guidance towards ‘NOOR’ i.e. the Holy Quran and sunnaah 65:11, and paradise 19:60, 34:37, 40:40. The opposites of these derivatives are injustice 5:39, evil 6:54, 47:2, 40:58, 9:102, corruption 26:152, 38:28, fighting for those who are oppressed 49:9, selfishness 4:128 and polytheism 18:110.
Foolishness is saying unjust things about Allah (SWT) 72:4 and doing something without knowledge and which involves loss 6:1401. Foolishness is associated with ‘Nafs’ 2:130. The opposite of foolishness is ‘correct judgment’ (Rushd) 4:5-6.
A very important derivative of these alphabets is ‘Ilm’ meaning ‘knowledge’. There are some words which are better understood through their opposites and ‘Ilm’ appears to be one of them.
The words used in the opposite sense of knowledge are, illiteracy, hear say, guess 2:78, desire 2:120, foolishness 6:140, forgery and lie 6:144, ignorance 12:89 unawareness 30:7. Knowledge should not be based on the above items but should be based on correct investigation 4:83 and proof 2:111. In this verse the term ‘Burhaan’ meaning proof is used in a sense opposite to ‘Amaaniyyu’ meaning desires which as seen above is opposite of knowledge. There should be no argument without knowledge 3:66. Knowledge is of two types (1) Divine 4:113, 4:175, 2:2 which is truth and just the truth. (2) Acquired through human efforts, when we are asked to travel in the earth 22:46 and observe and reflect on the universe and acquire knowledge 3:190-191. We are required to understand the Holy Quran in the light of the knowledge acquired by us as indicated in the Holy Quran :-”..... He (Allah SWT) will say: Did you deny My signs and did not comprehend them in (your) knowledge or what was it that you did?” 27:84. All knowledge is bestowed to us by Allah (SWT) 2: 255, 55:1-4, 2:31, 96:4-5, 16:78. even the ship built by Nuh (PBH) was according to His communication 11:37. The ship appears to be the first invention of man but under Divine guidance. Are all other inventions and discoveries too under Divine guidance of which man is not conscious ? Human beings have been given little knowledge 17:85 and Prophet Muhammed(PBH) was asked to pray for knowledge 20:114. Those who are really learned fear Allah(SWT) 35:28 and He exalts in degree those who believe and are given knowledge 58:11. Allah (SWT) knows everything 6:101. His Attributes Al Aliim, Al Aalim and Al Al-laam mean’ The Knower’, One Who knows.
Derivatives of these alphabets convey the meanings of meeting 2:14, finding 17:13, receiving 27:6, 28:80, giving 50:37, offering 4:94, putting down 7:150, throwing 7:107, communicating 4:171, casting forth 84:4 making 2:195, falling down 7:120, coming down 54:25 (turning) towards 7:47 etc. These words are used for meeting in war 8:15, meeting fatigue 18:62, meeting death 3:143, meeting punishment of sin 25:68, meeting Allah (SWT) 9:77. They are also used for casting love 20:39, putting enmity and hatred between human groups 5:64, casting terror in the hearts by Allah (SWT) 3:151, 8:12, putting mountains 16:15, the devil’s putting temptation 22:53, and putting people in hell 50:24. ‘KHALAW’ meaning’ they are alone’2:14 appears to give the opposite sense.
Derivatives of these alphabets convey the sense of being alone with people of one’s choice 3:119, exclusive with respect to someone else 2:134, passed 35:24 or passed away 3:134 with respect to the present. Summarily these words convey the sense of getting separated from something else.
Shaytaan is the same as Ibliis the devil, who was associated with Adam (PBH) 2:34-36, 7:27. Ibliis belongs to the category of the jinn having descendants 18:50, a tribe 7:27, and an army 26:95. Probably all the three words refer to his progeny, like the progeny of Adam (PBH) about whom he had said that he would bring them under his control except a few. It appears that one member from his progeny is associated with one member of the progeny of Adam (PBH) which is also indicated in one of the sayings of Prophet Muhammed (PBH) reported under word No 42:1. He has been created to distinguish between the believers in the hereafter and others who are in doubt about it 34:21 probably due to his deceptive temptation through his evil instigations 4:120. Ibliis did not bow down before Adam (PBH) considering himself better than him and claiming superiority and seniority that he was created earlier from fire (energy) whereas Adam (PBH) was created from clay (matter). Therefore Allah (SWT) drove him away, but he sought His permission and promised that he would mislead mankind from the straight path leading to paradise except those who serve/worship only Allah (SWT). Allah (SWT) too announced that He would fill hell with him and his followers 7:11-18, 38:82-83, 17:64. Ibliis deceived Adam and Hawwa (PBT) tempting them to eat from the forbidden tree, due to which their shame became manifest and Allah (SWT) sent them out of the garden 2:36, 7:19-25.
The devil is an open enemy of mankind therefore he should not be obeyed, worshipped or served 36:60. He enjoins on mankind only evil and that which is indecent 2:168-169, 24:21. Friends of devils, i.e. those who follow his evil suggestions, are at loss 4:119. The devil tempts mankind 7:27, makes false promises, excites vain desires 4:120, causes to forget good things 6:68, makes evil deeds fair-seeming 6:43, involves people in intoxicants and games of chance to evoke mutual hatred and enmity 5:90-91 spoils social relations through conversation, we are therefore ordered to speak that which is the best 17:53, makes people afraid of poverty while spending for a good cause 2:268 and he causes weakening uneasiness during wars with infields 8:11. If we do not remember Allah (SWT) i.e. if we do not always keep Him in mind, He Himself appoints a devil on us who turns us away from the right path but we think that we are rightly guided 43:36-37. The devil also makes people forget the remembrance of Allah (SWT) 58:19. Devils are from the jinn as well as human beings 6:112,114:1-6. Devils were made to work for Sulaymaan (PBH) 38:36-38, 21:82. The sky has been protected from them and if any one seeks to steal a hearing a clear flame follows him 15:16-18, 37:6-10, 67:5. Divine communications cannot be polluted by them 22:52-54. They have not come down with the Quran and it does not suit them, they have been kept away even from listening to it 26:210-212, 81:25.
We should seek the protection of Allah (SWT) from the evil instigation's of the devils and remember Him when we feel their influence on us, then we will start seeing aright 7:200-201. We should seek the protection of Allah (SWT) while reciting the Quran 16:98-100. We should always pray to Allah (SWT) seeking His protection in accordance with the instructions given in 23:97-98 and 114:1-6.
The mockers i.e. who make fun of Allah (SWT), His signs and His messengers (PBT) 9:65, the punishment of which they were warned (in this world) 46:26 (as well as the hereafter) 45:33 will engulf them and they will finally be punished in hell 18:106.
Such mocking or making fun is associated with infidelity 18:106, hypocrisy 4:140, denial 30:10, rebellion 2:15, ignorance 2:67, ridiculing i.e. looking down upon 21:41 and deception of the life of this world 45:35.
We are ordered not to take such people as friends 5:57 and not to sit with them while they are mocking 4:140.
Derivatives of these alphabets are used to convey the sense of stretching (the earth i.e. drifting the continents) 13:3, stretching (the shade) 25:45, straining (the eyes by stretching the looks) 15:88, prolonging (punishment) 19:79, adding 31:27, supplementing 18:109, pulling 7:202 helping (in worldly things) 26:132-133, supporting (with angels) 3:124, extensive 74:12, a term of time 9:4 and ink 18:109 because it spreads.
Derivatives of these alphabets convey the sense of rebellion against Allah (SWT) 20:24, overflowing (of water) 69:11, exceeding (the balance) 55:8, false deities 4:51.
These words are associated with, infidelity 5:64, denial 91:11, being in error 50:27, deviation from the right 53:17, preferring this world 79:37-38, hastening evil 20:45 being independent or rich 96:6-7, injustice 53:52, blindly wondering 6:110, idols 4:51.
The opposites of the words derived from the above alphabets are turning towards Allah (SWT) 11:112, belief 2:256, worshipping Allah (SWT) 16:36.
The consequence of the rebels mentioned above is Allah’s anger 20:81, an evil place of return 38:55 and finally hell 78:21-22, 79:37-39. Those who keep away from the false deities are given good news 39:17.
Such people are associated with those in error 7:186, who do not hope to meet Allah (SWT) 10:11, who are intoxicated 15:72 and those who do not believe in the hereafter 27:4.
The opposite sense is conveyed by the words guidance 7:186 and mercy of Allah (SWT) 23:75.
Derivatives of these alphabets are used both for selling 12:20 as well as purchasing 12:21. They have also been used in the sense that Allah (SWT) purchases from the believers their lives and wealth for paradise 9:111, selling oneself seeking the pleasure of Allah (SWT) 2:207, selling this world’s life for the hereafter 4:74, purchasing infidelity at the cost of belief 3:177, selling the signs of Allah (SWT) for a small price 9:9 selling the agreement with Allah (SWT) and oaths for a small price 3:77 etc.
Merchandise 2:282. It is also used in the abstract sense for reward 35:29, 61:10-11. It is associated with ‘bayun’ meaning trade 24:37.
Other derivatives :- Similarity 2:113, like manner 2:137, being alike 2:228, 2:275, similitude 16:60, best, exemplary 20:104 and for an example referring to Isa (PBH) 43:57 and 59. These derivatives have also been used to mean twice which actually contains two similar parts 3:13, equivalent when both the compared parts are similar 4:11 and for making Jibriil (PBH) appear like a man 19:17 probably conveying the sense of external appearance as in the case of idols referred to as ‘Tamaasiil’ 21:52 wherein there is an external resemblance to some real object or an imaginary figure. These examples, likenesses, similitude's etc are real not imaginary because the Quran contains only truth and nothing else.
Other derivatives :- Kindling (fire for war) 5:64, (fire of) Allah (SWT) kindled 104:5-6, liting (a lamp) 24:35, fuel (trees) 36:80, fuel (men and stones) 2:24. The opposite of these words is ‘Extinguish’ 5:64.
In the life after death, punishment will be in the fire of hell 40:49 the fuel of which will be human beings and stones 2:24 from which people will not be able to come out 2:167. The guardians of hell are angels 74:31. The inmates of hell will talk to the dwellers of paradise 7:50. In this world trees are the fuel for fire 36:80 and fire is used in the preparation of ornaments 13:17, these two fires might have been mentioned to give human beings an idea of the high temperature, especially to the comman man. Those who will be punished in the fire will be the infidels and the deniers of the signs of Allah (SWT) 2:39, 7:36, polytheists 98:6 hypocrites 4:145 the criminals 18:53 the unjust 3:151, the transgressors 32:20, those who disobey Allah (SWT) and His messenger (PBH) 72:23 who hide His communications 2:174, those who earn evil and their misdeeds encompass them 2:81, those who swallow usury 2:275 wretched 11:106, those who swallow orphan’s wealth 4:10, the jinn 7:38 the devil 59:16-17. Devil 59:16 and polytheist invite towards the fire 2:221.
The jinn 15:27 and the devil were created from the fire 7:12.
The opposite of hell fire is paradise and protective forgiveness 2:221. The opposite of fire is coolness giving peace 21:69. Ibrahiim (PBH) was saved from the fire 29:24.
Other derivative :- ‘Light’ due to which we are able to see the material world:- (1) Light from lightening 2:20. (2) Light from the sun 10.5, in both the cases the light is associated with heat. The opposites of this light are darkness 2:20 and night 28:71.
The word ‘ziyaaa’ meaning ‘light’ is used for the Tawraah which differentiated between the right and the wrong and it was a reminder for those who guarded against evil 21:48. It has also been stated to be ‘Nuur’ 5:44,46. The Quran has always been called ‘Nuur’ 5:15,7:157,64:8, it has never been called ‘Ziyaa’. ‘Nuur’ is pure light not associated with heat, as in the case of moon light 10:5 i.e. when heat is removed from ‘Ziyaaa’ it is known as ‘Nuur’ from which nothing can be removed. The Tawraah and the Injiil were altered 2:79 but the Quran is protected 15:9. This may be the reason for using the word Nuur for the holy Quran and ‘Ziyaaa’ for Tawraah as it exists now compared to the original one for which probably the word Nuur was used 5:44, 6:91.
Other derivatives :- Coming in between or around two or more objects: A wave came between them 11:43, Allah (SWT) comes between man and his heart 8:24, a barrier was placed between them 34:54, they would have dispersed from around you 3:159, neighborhood 17:1, around hell 19:68.
In the above verses the derivatives refer to the space between or around two or more objects.
Some of the derivatives convey other meanings too:- Change 17:56, 18:108, means (resources) 4:98 and one year 2:240.
Other derivative :- Take away 2:20 or go away 11:10. The word ‘Azzahab’ means gold 3:14.
External Nuur is ordinary light through which we are able to see the material world, the opposite of which is darkness 2:17, 6:1. When Nuur gets associated with heat as in the case of fire 2:17 or the sun light 10:5 it is known as Ziyaaa. We can easily move in Nuur i.e. light but cannot do so in darkness.
The Quran is called Nuuram-mubiin meaning a clear light 4:175 which guides us to move on the straight path leading to paradise 1:5-6, 2:2-5 illustrated by Prophet Muhammed (PBH) who is called ‘Siraajam-Muniira’ meaning a lamp giving light 33:45-46.
The Holy Quran is stated to be Nuur i.e.light. Scientifically it has been established that light exerts pressure. It is stated in the Quran: “Had we sent down this Quran on a mountain you would have seen it fallen down splitting asunder due to the fear of Allah” 59:21.
It is reported that when portions of the Quran were sent down to the messenger (PBH) of Allah (SWT) while he was riding a camel it used to sit down due to excess load because the messenger (PBH) of Allah (SWT) used to weigh more as experienced by Zaid bin Sabit (R.A) and he perspired heavily. [Seerat-un-Nabi by Sulaiman Nadvi 1928 vol3 pp302-303]. This was due to the weight of the Nuur i.e. The Quran. Prophet Muhammed (PBH) reflected the Nuur of the Quran by implementing it practically and perfectly but in the process of propagating the Quranic message he suffered a lot. It is probably due to this suffering while propagating the Nuur that he is called ‘Siraajam-muniira’ meaning a lamp giving light-the lamp burns i.e. suffers to give light to others. Allah (SWT) guides to His Nuur i.e. the Quran and Sunnah of our Prophet (PBH) whom He wills 24:35 and 40. One who is not guided by this internal light or Nuur i.e. the Quran and the Sunnah of our Prophet is in internal darkness wandering in error 24:40.
The source of both the external and internal Nuur is Allah (SWT) 6:1, 4:175. Allah (SWT) is the Nuur of the skies and the earth 24:35 and the earth will shine with His Nuur on the day of resurrection 39:69 when Allah (SWT) will not disgrace the Prophet (PBH) and those who believed with him, their light (Nuur) will be running before them and on their right hands they will say, “Our Fosterer! perfect our light for us and protectively forgive us, you certainly have power over everything” 66:8.
‘An-Nuur’ is one of the Attributes of Allah (SWT), the Quran is Nuuram-mubiin and Prophet Muhammed (PBH) Siraajam muniira. Those who are guided by these lights i.e. those who obey Allah (SWT) and His messenger (PBH) achieve the greatest achievement 33:71.
Other derivatives :- ‘Leaving’, leave behind something for inheritance 2:180, forsake 12:37 etc.
Allah (SWT) has made the light and darkness 6:1. Three types of darknesses with respect to the material world are mentioned in the Quran. (1) The darkness at night 6:97. (2) Darkness in deep sea 24:40 and (3) Darkness in wombs 39:6. Nuur has always been used in the singular form whereas darkness has always been used in the plural form 13:16, 14:1, 35:20, 57:9 etc because there is only one right path leading to paradise and many paths which mislead. Allah (SWT) takes out the believers from darkness and leads them towards light i.e. Nuur 2:257, 4:175. Those who deny the signs of Allah (SWT) are deaf, dumb and in darkness 6:39.
The opposites of darkness are light and heat represented by the words ‘Ziyaaa’ as in the case of fire 2:20 and ‘Barq’ 2:20. Nuur meaning pure light is also opposite of darkness 2:17.
The brain receives signals from the external world through the five physical senses and responds accordingly. If someone cannot or does not hear or listen to them he cannot respond, this is the case with those who do not listen to the message of Allah (SWT) 5:71 and deny it 6:39. Due to this arrogance of not listening they neither return to the right path 2:18 nor do they understand 2:171 therefore they are classed as the worst of creatures 8:22.
Such deafness to the message of Allah (SWT) is associated with dumbness and blindness 2:171. i.e. they can neither see nor respond. The opposite of deafness is hearing 11:24. The dead do not hear 27:80 and also those in the graves 35:22. Those whom Allah (SWT) leaves in error will be gathered on the day of resurrection blind, dumb and deaf and their settling place will be hell 17:97.
One who cannot speak who brings nothing good 16:76.
Obscure 28:66. Hearts are also blind 22:46, to the internal Nuur 24:35 and 40 contained in the Quran 4:175.
There is no blame on the blind if they do not participate in religious wars 48:17. Whoever was blind to the message of Allah (SWT) in this world he will be blind in the hereafter 17:72.
Blindness is associated with deafness and dumbness 2:18 with respect to the message of Allah (SWT).
The opposite of blindness are ‘seeing’ 6:50 and ‘guidance’ 41:17.
Other derivatives :- ‘Returning’ for instance returning of Musa (PBH) to his people 7:150, returning the sight i.e. looking back again 67:3-4, bringing back the soul 56:82-87, returning to Allah (SWT) after death 89:27-28, 2:28, 29:57, returning of affairs to Allah (SWT) 2:210, returning of all to Allah (SWT) 19:40, 6:60.
The sky is the space above our heads wherever we are on the spherical earth, i.e. regions beyond the earth upwards 50:6, 21:32. It is the direction from which water as rain comes down 2:22. It has been organized into seven higher levels or systems (samawaat) in two periods or stages 2:29, 41:11-12. The seven layers or systems are in accordance with each other 67:3, 71:15. Allah (SWT) holds it from falling down on the earth 22:65, 30:25. The sky contains clouds 2:164, thunderbolts 18:40, the galaxies, the sun, the moon 25:61, the planets 37:6, the stars 41:12, the guards probably the black holes, flames 72:8 and orbits of heavenly bodies 51:7, 23:17. The sky are expanding 51:47. All heavenly bodies are raised 88:18 without any visible support 13:2.
All the heavenly bodies including the earth were joined together and Allah (SWT) separated them 21:30 and gave the present structure in six periods or stages 11:7 providing perfect balance 55:7. The heavenly bodies are real not an illusion 14:19.
Allah (SWT) is the Originator 2:117, the Initiator of creation 6:14 and the proportioner 6:1 of the skies and the earth. He has full control on them 2:107, everything in them belongs to Him 2:116, 2:284. He has knowledge of everything including the unseen 2:33, 3:29, 27:75. His chair i.e. throne extends over them 2:255 and His is the command 32:5 and finally He will inherit them 3:180.
He has compelled everything in the skies and the earth to serve mankind 31:20, 45:13 i.e. everything in the universe is fine tuned to suit human life on earth known as the Anthropic principle of the universe. The purpose of creating the skies and the earth is to test human beings and reward them accordingly 45:22. We are invited to reflect on them 34:9, 3:191. Everything in them glorifies Allah (SWT) 57:1 and submits to Him 16:49.
Before the end a smoke will come from the sky and cover mankind which will be a painful punishment 44:10-11. The skies will be rolled up 39:67 due to which the heavenly bodies might come closer and closer increasing their mutual force of gravity which is probably hinted in 7:187 stating the event to be heavy. The end of the universe will involve whirling of the sky 52:9 and its splitting asunder 69:16, 73:18, 77:9, 78:19, 81:11, 82:1, 84:1 and it will become red like red hide 55:37 and molten brass 70:8 probably referring to the final crunch when all heavenly bodies will get concentrated at one place with a firy chaos just to rebounce into a new creation mentioned in 21:104 to give rise to new skies and a new earth 14:48, 36:81.
Thunder is associated with rain and lightening and it glorifies and praises Allah (SWT) 13:13.
Lightening is associated with rain and thunder. It is so bright that it almost takes away the sight 24:43, its opposite is darkness 2:20. Lightening causes fear and hope 13:12, 30:24. On the day of resurrection the sight will dazzle (Bariq-al-basar) 75:6-7.
Other derivatives: Making 2:22, giving 4:90, appointing 5:20, putting 12:70, setting up 50:26, assigning 74:12, placing 6:124 etc.
The infidels put their fingers in their ears due to fear of death from thunder clap and to avoid hearing the message of Allah (SWT) from Nuh (PBH) 71:7.
We hear through our ears 7:195 but if there is heaviness in the ears 31:7 i.e. something which filters out good, then inspite of the ears we do not hear or listen 7:179. The mention of remembering ears 69:12 indicates that, what we hear is recorded in our memory and can be displayed on the day of resurrection as a proof in favour of or against us 41:19-23. We fall asleep when our sense of hearing is taken away 18:11.
The ears are associated with the eyes 7:195 and the hearts 22:46. Derivatives of this alphabets also convey the sense of permission 9:43, order 24:36, announcement 7:44, taking notice of 2:279, response 84:2 and excuse 16:84.
Other derivatives:- Thunder bolts 13:13, 2:55 41:13 and falling down senseless i.e. fainting 7:143, 39:68 probably because of the effect of a thunder bolt 2:55.
Other derivatives:- Being aware 24:63, 63:4, cautious 28:6, 39:9, 64:14, precautious 4:71 and 102, alert 26:56 etc.
[Also Hayaath meaning life and Wafaat meaning death]. Allah (SWT) gives life causes death 3:156 and burial 80:21. He made every living thing from water 21:30. He takes away the nafs (soul, conscious self or the psychic personality) at the time of death and a person can die in his sleep too. The Nafs is taken away even during sleep 39:42 but life remains and the person rises on awaking 6:60. At the time of death both life and consciousness are taken away whereas during sleep only consciousness is taken away temporarily and returned on awakening.
No human being is immortal i.e. every ‘Nafs’ tastes death 21:34-35. Allah (SWT) brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living, 3:27.
There are two deaths and two lives 2:28, 40:11. Before coming into this world for ‘Hayaat id-duniya’ 43:32 human beings are biologically non existent and after the end of this first life too they become biologically non existent when the physical body is absorbed in the earth. On the day of resurrection human beings will rise bodily 75:3-4, 17:49-52 when the souls will be paired (probably with respective physical bodies) 81:7, the earth above them will split 50:44 and they will come out of the graves 70:43. Death can be defined as ‘Biological Nonexistence’, first before this life and second after it. Life in this world is biological existence and the presence of the Nafs or the psychic personality makes us active members of the human society facing the test for which we have been created 67:2. In the hereafter too i.e. our second life we will be biologically alive and conscious because we will be asked to read and examine our account of deeds 17:13-14, 10:30 and either enjoy in paradise which will include physical pleasures or suffer in hell which will include physical pains 69:18-37, 56:1-56.
The place 3:154 and time 3:145 of death are fixed by Allah (SWT). Wherever we are death will grasp us 4:78 and we will be gathered towards Him 3:158. We do not know in which land will die 31:34 but we are ordered to die as Muslims 2:132, therefore every moment of our conscious life should be on Islam as we do not know when we will die.
In this life too the dead were raised to life as miracles: a man kept dead for 100 years was raised to life 2:259 but he did not feel the length of time .
Isa (PBH) raised a dead man to life 3:49 by the permission of Allah (SWT). The intoxication of death i.e. sakraat-ul-mawt engulfs human beings at the time of their death 50:19, when the messengers (angels) take back the person 6:61 (the soul or the psychical personality). It is stated in the Quran: The angel of death Malak-ul-mawt who is entrusted with you will take you back (your soul) then to your Fosterer you will be returned 32:11.
The angels take back the infidels (i.e. their souls) striking their faces and their backs, saying, “Taste the punishment of burning” 8:50, 47:27, the unjust thus suffer the hardships of death 6:93. In the case of the pious people the angels take back (their soul) saying “Peace be on you, enter the garden because of that which you used to do”. 16:32 the dead do not hear 27:80 and those slain in the way of Allah are not to be called dead, they are alive and get their provision from Allah (SWT) 2:154, 3:169, 22:58.
The earth is the place where we live and die and from which we will be brought out 7:25. The dead will be brought out of the earth like vegetation after the rain 7:57, 50:11. There is no death in paradise 44:56 but life in the exaggerated form 29:64, whereas in hell people will neither die nor live 20:74, 35:36, 87:13.
Death is associated with fear 2:19, 2:243, murder 3:144 and grave 9:84, life and death are used as opposites of each other 16:21, 19:66, 35:22.
Everything will perish except Allah (SWT) 28:88, 55:26-27. He is always Alive ‘Al Hayy’, Conscious and Attentive, being present everywhere 2:115. He does not die, does not sleep, does not become inattentive of His creation and does not get tired 2:255, 25:58. He gives life being ‘Al Muhyi’ ‘The Giver of life’ and causes to die being ‘Al Mumiit’ ‘One who causes death.
Other derivatives: Surrounding something physically as a wave encompassing a ship in the sea 10:22, being surrounded and overpowered physically 12:66 and in the abstract sense, comprehension as in the case of knowledge 2:255, 27:84. Allah (SWT) encompasses everything in knowledge 65:12, He encompasses mankind 17:60 and encompasses everything 4:126 probably in the sense of surrounding and overpowering.
Other derivatives : More close 2:71, intend 4:78, almost 7:150, about to 17:73, able to 14:17, hardly 43:52.
Other derivatives: Snatching away (of eye sight) 2:20, of hearing by jiin 37:10, kidnaping (of human beings) 8:26, 29:67 etc. They are associated with weakness 8:26 and their opposites are security 29:67, refuge and help 8:26.
Other derivatives: Walking 7:195 or moving 24:45 physically and walking on the right path shown in the Quran (Nuur) 57:28. The opposite of these derivatives is being stand still 2:20.
Other derivatives: To stand up 4:142, 18:14 the opposite of which is movement or walking 2:20.
Other derivatives: ‘Willing’ 18:29, 18:39.
Every or all when refered to Allah (SWT) but when it is refered to human beings, as in the case of Zil Qarnayan, it may mean everything or all things necessary for him 18:84.
Other derivatives: Material things 34:39, 7:85, and sometimes abstract things 3:128, 5:101, 53:28, 58:18. In many verses they refer to both material and abstract things 2:155, 15:21, 51:49.
Following verses of the Quran help in understanding the meanings conveyed by the derivatives of these alphabets.
Precise measure ( amount, size ) :- …. Allah measures out íõÞóÏøöÑõ the night and the day…. Ch.73 Vs. 20
The lengths of the day and night are so precisely measured out that the times of sunrise and sunset on any day of a year are the same every year.
He governs the affair from the sky to the earth, then it will ascend to Him in a day, the measure ãöÞúÏóÇÑõåõof which is a thousand years of that which you count. Ch.32 Vs.5
Capacity, power:- There is no sin on you if you divorce women while you have not yet touched them or settled for them a settlement ( dowry ), but provide for them, ( this is incumbent ) on the rich in accordance with his power ( capacity ÞóÏóÑõ ) and on the straitened in accordance with his power, ( capacity ÞóÏóÑõ )a provision recognized ( to be good ) a duty incumbent on the doers of good. Ch.2 Vs.236.
Allah sets forth a similitude: a slave under someone’s control, having no power áÇíóÞúÏöÑõ on anything… Ch.16 Vs.75
Programme, destiny:- It is certainly Allah Who splits the grain and the date stone ( seed ). He brings out the living from the dead and He brings out the dead from the living. That is Allah, then how are you turned away ( from the truth )? Splitter of the day break, and He has made the night for rest and the sun and the moon for keeping an account ( of time ). That is the programme ÊóÞúÏöíúÑõ of the Mighty, the Knowing. Ch.6 Vs.95-96
And a sign to them is the dead earth. We give life to it and bring out from it grain so they eat of it. And We have made therein gardens of date palms and grapes and We have caused the springs to gush forth therein, that they may eat of its fruit, and their hands did not make it. Will they not then be grateful? Glory be to Him Who created pairs of everything, of that which the earth grows and of themselves and of that which they do not know. And a sign for them is the night, We cause the day to slip off from it, when ( again ) they are in darkness. And the sun moves on for the time ( and ) in the space ( appointed for ) it. That is the programme ÊóÞúÏöíúÑõ of the Mighty, the Knowing. Ch:36 Vs:33-38
And the moon, We have programmed ÞóÏøóÑúäóÇåõ for it stages ( in space and time ) till it returns like and old dry palm branch. Ch: 36 Vs: 39
Say, ‘What! Do you not believe in Him Who created the earth in two periods, and do you set up equals with Him? That is the Fosterer of the worlds.’ And He made in it mountains ( through the deposition of material ) from the surface of it, and blessed therein, and He destined ÞóÏøóÑó in it its food in four periods, balanced ( according to the requirement ) of the seekers. Moreover, He set the balance towards the sky which was smoke. So He said to it and to the earth, ‘Come willingly or unwillingly.’ They both said, ‘We come willingly,’ so He ordained them ( to get organized into ) seven skies ( higher levels ), in two periods, and communicated in each sky its affair. And We adorned the sky of the world with lamps ( stars ) and provided protection. That is the programme of the Mighty, the Knowing. Ch: 41 Vs: 9-12
And Allah knows that which every female bears and that which the wombs absorb and that which they grow; and with Him, everything is according to a programme ãöÞúÏóÇÑò. Ch: 13 Vs: 8
Did We not create you from a fluid ( which is ) weakened after vigour? Then We made it to stay in a place till ( the fulfillment of ) the known programme ÞóÏóÑò thus We programmed ÝóÞóÏóÑúäóÇ for We are Excellent Programers ÇóáúÞóÇÏöÑõæúäó. Ch: 77 Vs: 20-23
He created him ( man ) from a sperm, then progra mmed ÝóÞóÏøóÑóåõ him ( to follow a certain path ) then He eased that path for him. Ch: 80 Vs: 19-20
We have destined ÞóÏøóÑúäóÇ death among you… Ch: 56 Vs: 60
We have certainly created everything with a programme. Ch: 54 Vs: 49
…. Allah has indeed made a programme ÞóÏúÑðÇ for everything. Ch: 65: 3
….And He created everything then programmed for it a programme æó ÎóáóÞó ßõáøó ÔóìúÁò ÝóÞóÏøóÑóåõ ÊóÞúÏöíúÑðÇ Ch: 25 Vs: 2
This programme for everything in the universe is probably written down in the guarded tablet áóæúÍò ãøðÍúÝõæúÙò Ch: 85 Vs: 22 and sent down annually for implementation during ‘Laitat – ul – qadr’ as indicated in Ch: 97
We certainly sent it down during the night of Al Qadr. And what will make you realize what the night of Al Qadr is? The night of Al Qadr is better than a thousand months. The angles and the spirit come down during this night by the permission of their Fosterer with ( a programme for ) every affair. Peace it is till the appearance of dawn Ch: 97.
Opposite word:- Straiten as opposed to enlarge
Allah íóÈúÓõØõ enlarges the provision for whom He wills and straitens íóÞúÏöÑõ ( measured )…. Ch: 13 Vs: 26
Association with other words:-Glorify the name of your Fosterer, the Most High Who created then set the equilibrium ÝóÓóæøóÇì, and Who programmed then guided. ÝóåóÏóÇì ( to the programme ). Ch: 87 Vs: 1-3
Summary and conclusion:-
Allah’s is the kingdom of the skies and the earth and that which is in them and He has power ÞóÏöíúÑñ over everything. Ch: 5 Vs:120
Do they not consider that Allah Who created the skies and the earth is able ÞóÇÏöÑñ to create their like? Ch: 17 Vs: 99
…and Allah is the Holder of power ãõÞúÊóÏöÑðÇ over everything. Ch: 18 Vs: 45
And they have not estimated Allah with the estimation ÞóÏúÑöåö due to Him. And the earth will be totally in His grip on the day of resurrection, with the skies rolled up in His right hand. Glorified is He and high ( above ) that which they associate as partners ( with Him ). Ch: 39 Vs: 67
Allah ( SWT ) asÇóáúÞóÏöíúÑñ is the Possessor of power, as ÇóáúãõÞúÊóÏöÑõHe exhibits this power and as ÇóáúÞóÇÏöÑõ he holds power over everything. In view of the three important meanings indicated by the derivatives of Þ Ï Ñ 1. Measure, 2. Capability and 3. Programming or allotting a destiny, Allah ( SWT ) precisely programmes everything for the purpose for which He has created it and strictly guides it to follow its prescribed programme or destiny prescribed by Him.
The power and capability associated with the derivatives of this word are the power and capability of measuring out, programming or prescribing destinies. Laws of nature framed by Allah ( SWT ) can be considered as the Taqdir, destiny or the programme to be followed by everything in His creation. These laws of nature cannot be violated by any one, but Allah ( SWT ) Himself can go against them , if He wills to as He does when He makes His prophets perform miracles like changing a wooden staff to a live snake or converting a form of a bird moulded in clay, to a live bird. These miracles performed against the laws of nature by Moses ( PBH ) and Jesus ( PBH ) were not only proofs of their being prophets and messengers of Allah but also an exhibition of the power of Allah and a challenge to humanity in general that no one else can perform miracles going against the laws of nature, without Allah’s permission.
These laws of nature, destiny or programme of everything in the creation of Allah appears to be recorded in guarded tablet. Ch: 85 Vs: 22 or the source book. This book appears to contain the time and place of every event that is to take place in the universe, everywhere, each moment involving everything… And every affair has a ( set ) time/place of happening. Ch: 54 Vs: 3
Allah abolishes what He wills and keeps established ( what He wills ) and with Him is the original prescription ( book ). Ch: 13 Vs: 39
The above verse indicates that destiny is not the final word, if Allah wills He can abolish what He Himself has destined, He can even advance or postpone the time of an event appointed by Him.
Other derivatives: Creating, making, fabricating portioning something from something else:- creation of living beings from water 24:45, creation of jiin from firy heat 55:15, creation of man from sperm 16:4 etc, in proportion and out of proportion 22:5. They are also used for creation of abstract qualities like, habit 26:137, character 68:4, human temperament 21:37 fabricating of lie 29:17, orbits of heavenly bodies 23:17, share 2:102 etc.
These derivatives are associated with Allah’s (SWT) command 7:54 knowledge 15:86 and fashioning 59:24 and their opposites convey the sense of decay 36:68 and death 30:40.
Allah (SWT) created everything 6:102, He creates what He wills 28:68, He begins the creation and gets it reproduced 10:4 and His creation is perfect 27:88, 67:3-4. He creates the physical forms as well as their functions 87:1-3 and everything follows His command (Amr) 7:54 i.e. ‘The laws of Nature’ laid down by Him cannot be violated, but if He wills He can, as He does in the case of miracles which He Himself makes His Prophets (PBT) to perform.
Other derivatives: The earth is a spreading below opposed to the sky a structure above 2:22, 51:47-48, cattle of low height like sheep, goats etc. suitable for eating as opposed to comparatively tall cattle meant for carrying burden like horses, mules etc 6:142, moths which normally fly low 101:4, spreading like bed sheets (layed down) 55:54 and raised beds kept on the floor 56:34.
Some derivatives of these alphabets mean to build or construct a structure, building or construction. Build 26:128, construct 50:6 building which they built 9:110, construct a building 18:21 etc.
The rain that comes down from the clouds in the sky giving life to the dead earth 2:164 through which grows the vegetation providing food 6:99, 16:10, 14:32. This rain water actually belongs to the earth 11:44, 79:31 having evaporated from it to form clouds 15:22. It is clean 25:48 and comes down in a measured amount with a set programme 23:18, 43:11 and later on flows in the form of rivers 13:17 and comes out from porous rocks 2:74. It is used for drinking and irrigation 16:10. All living beings 21:30, 24:45 including man 25:54 have been created from water.
The word ‘Maaa’ has been used for seminal fluid 32:8, 77:20, 86:6. It has also been used for water like molten brass which will be given to the inmates of hell 18:29 which would obviously be at very high temperature. The inmates of hell will get boiling water for drinking 14:16, whereas in paradise there will be rivers of unpolluted water 47:15, 56:31.
The seminal fluid and molten brass are not water i.e. the word ‘Maaa’, meaning water in general is also used for liquids of different composition and at very high temperatures.
It is stated in the Quran. “And He (Allah) it is Who created the skies and the earth in six periods when His throne was on water............” 11:7.
In view of the above discussion, if the ‘throne’ is understood to mean ‘control’ then does the word ‘Maaa’ mean ordinary water or a fluid at very high temperature? Does this refer to the super dense nuclear fluid of the primeval atom before the ‘Big Bang’ marking the explosive initiation of the present universe 21:30?
Other derivatives: Coming out 19:11 going out 28:21, bringing out 2:22 etc, which are opposite of entering into something 17:80, 34:2.
They have been created in pairs 13:3 and similar fruits will be given in paradise 2:25, 47:15
Objects besides Allah (SWT) which are loved as Allah (SWT) should have been loved, by people who are unjust whereas the believers are strongest in love for Allah (SWT) 2:165. Considering others equal to Allah (SWT) amounts to infidelity 34:33.
Other derivatives: Wall 57:13 and bracelets 18:31
Other derivatives: Calling 2:23, praying for help 3:38, inviting towards Allah (SWT) 8:24, 41:33, invoking 19:91, asking 41:31 etc. Human beings pray for help when they are afflicted with harm 39:8, 41:51. These derivatives are associated with righteous deeds, Islam 41:33, help 54:10, response 8:24 etc. Allah (SWT) responds to our prayer 2:186, we can pray to Him invoking any of His Attributes 17:110. We are required to pray only to Him making religion exclusively for Him 10:22, 31:32 and we should not pray to others 10:106, 72:18 they cannot respond 13:14, 35:13-14, 7:194-198, 46:5 we should pray secretly, humbly 6:63 with fear and hope 7:55-56, 21:90.
Other derivatives: Witness 12:26, someone present not absent 2:185, visible opposed to unseen 6:73, keeping an eye on 22:78, Marty’s 57:19.
Before coming into this world we were made to bear witness that Allah (SWT) is our Fosterer 7:172-174. For loan transaction there should be two male or one male and two female witnesses 2:282. For punishment of a man and women involved in shameless deeds four persons should bear witness 24:4-8. One should bear witness with justice for the sake of Allah (SWT) 5:8. Recitation of the Quran at dawn is witnessed 17:78. In the hereafter mankind will be gathered and that will be a day which will be witnessed (probably when witnesses will be called to give witness against or in favour of infidels and believers) 11:103. The tongues, hands and legs will bear witness on the day of judgment against those who had accused chaste, innocent, believing women 24:24 and the ears, eyes and the skins will bear witness against the enemies of Allah (SWT) 41:19-21.
‘Shahiid’ is one of the Attributes of Allah (SWT) 22:17. He is always a witness over everything, everywhere being present and never being absent, keeping an eye on everything, everywhere.
Allah (SWT) and His messenger (PBH) speak the truth 33:22. Derivatives of these alphabets convey the sense of being truthful 2:177, proving something to be true 34:20, testifying the truth 39:33, confirming the truth 10:37, accepting the truth 56:57, 70:26, truth itself 5:119, friend 26:101 and charity 9:75 (dealt with later under 2:196-263.
These words are associated with belief and Islam 33:22, fear of Allah (SWT) 9:119, patience, obeying Allah (SWT) and His messenger, charity, seeking forgiveness of Allah (SWT), favours of Allah (SWT), prophets (PBT), marty’s righteous, Muslims, Momins, humility, fasting, chastity, remembrance of Allah (SWT), 3:17, 4:69, 33:35, guarding against evil 2:177, righteousness 63:10, satisfaction 5:113, reality as Haqq 15:64, Salat 75:31, agreement 33:23 etc.
The opposites are lying 12:26, fabricating a lie 12:111.
Other derivatives: Doing something 7:155. Allah (SWT) is a witness over all that is done 10:46, everything that is done is recorded 54:52-53 by the angels 82:12 we should not say what we have not done, Allah (SWT) hates it 61:2-3. A painful punishment waits for those who love to be praised for what they did not do 3:188. Poets say what they do not do or practice 26:226. Allah (SWT) does what He intends 2:253 or what He wills 3:40, He cannot be questioned for what He does but others will be questioned 21:23. The command of Allah (SWT) is executed 4:47.
Other derivatives: Fuel for fire (trees) 36:80, (men and stones) 66:6, kindling a fire 2:17, liting a lamp 24:35, kindling of hell fire 104:6.
The derivative ‘Hujuraat’ means rooms 49:4. A room is a vacant space bounded by walls, roof and floor with openings like doors, windows etc. Very small holes or pores like those in a sponge can also be called very small rooms. In view of this ‘Hajar’ 2:60 and ‘Hijaarah’ 2:74 from the same root alphabets would mean porous rocks or stones. When Musa (PBH) asked for water he was asked to strike ‘Hajar’ 2:60 (meaning a porous rock or an acquifier) out of a number of other words for rocks available in Arabic like ‘Jabal’, ‘Rawasiya’ etc. Hearts are compared with Hijaarah 2:74 (porous rock). Hearts absorb and pump out blood, porous rocks too absorb rain water and make it available for discharge as rivers or being drawn out from wells 2:74. One is forced to admire the selection of the most appropriate words throughout the Quran.
The pores prevent water from moving out easily, it is probably due to this reason that some of the derivatives are used to mean prevention (of water from getting mixed up) 25:53, prevention (from punishment) 25:22, forbidding (meaning preventing from certain things) 6:138, guardianship (which involves prevention from harm) 4:23, sense (which should prevent from falsehood) 89:5.
Hijaaratam-min-sijjiil 11:82 and Hijaaratam-min-tiin 51:33 can be translated as porous stones of (baked) clay’. Baking involves heat. In view of this it appears that these stones were thrown out of a volcano and fell down as rain 11:82, they became porous due to loss of volatile gases. In the case of the owners of elephant 105:4, the birds might have been made to pick up these stones thrown out of a volcano and deposited earlier, there being many igneous rocks in and around Mecca. The place Al Hijr where Saleh (PBH) preached is a rocky area (probably of porous rocks) 15:80.
Other derivatives: Preparing (for fighting) 8:60, (for war) 9:46, (punishment) 4:93, (paradise) 9:89 and numbering 19:84, counting 14:34, term 65:1 etc.
Other derivatives: Conveying of information. Good news the opposite of which is despair 15:53-55, news of the birth of a girl 16:58, news of punishment 4:138, conveyer of good news ‘Bashiir’ the opposite of which is warner ‘Naziir’ 5:19, man as an information processing being 15:33 (see word No.42:4). It is probably in the sense of imparting or conveying information that ‘baashiruu’ derived from the same root alphabets is used for having ‘sexual intercourse’ 2:187. In this process the sperm containing genetic information fertilizes the egg which also contains genetic information and the combination of these two genetic information's gives birth to a child - another information processing being (Bashar).
Other derivatives: Come 16:1, done 3:188, give 23:71, bring 23:90.
The word ‘Amal’ in general means deeds which may be good 2:82 or bad 40:40. Everyone acts according to the scope allowed to him 17:84 and is responsible for his own deeds 10:41. We have been created to be tested 67:2. The devils decorate evil deeds and make them fair seeming 6:43, 16:63. We will be questioned for our deeds 15:92-93 after being informed about them 24:64 because whatever we do is recorded 45:29. Our tongues, hands and feet 24:24 along with ears, eyes and skins will bear witness against us on the day of judgment 41:20. Allah (SWT) is not unaware of 2:74, sees 2:110, is informed of 2:271, has knowledge of 2:283, is witness over 3:98 and encompasses 11:92 all our deeds. For everyone their are grades according to what they do 6:132, punishment for bad deeds 32:14 and paradise for good deeds 43:72. Jinn 34:12 and devils too work 5:90, 21:82.
The word Jannat is used for garden on earth too 6:99. Adam and his wife (PBT) were asked to stay in a garden 2:35. The extension of the garden (paradise) in which the righteous people will live in the hereafter is like the skies and the earth 3:133, it is also known as ‘Firdaws’ 18:107. This garden will have door’s or gates 38:50, 39:73. Allah (SWT) invites human beings towards this garden 2:221, He will give this garden in exchange for the life and wealth of the believers 9:111. Entry in the garden will be given to those who believe and do good works in accordance with the Quran and teachings of Prophet Muhammed (PBH) 4:13, 16:32, 2:82, 23:1-11, 70:22-35, those who worship Allah (SWT) guarding against evil 19:63, who are patient 76:12 who feared Allah (SWT) and restrained from evil desire 79:40-41, whose souls were peaceful 89:27-30.
The gardens of paradise will have houses 9:72 and multistoried palaces 39:20 with rivers flowing below. The inhabitants of paradise will have fruits, pure spouces 2:25 ever lasting food, shade, 13:35 whatever they will for 16:31, they will not hear any vain talk except peace, having their provision morning and evening 19:62. It will be the best resting place 25:24. They will have therein bracelets of gold, pearls, silk garments 35:33, rivers of water, milk, wine, and honey 47:15. They will recline on spreadings and carpets having beautiful females 55:54-76. Youths will move about attending on them, flesh of birds will be served 56:11-40. There will be radiant happiness and joy, the atmosphere neither hot nor very cold, it will be an excellent great kingdom 76:11-22 of Allah (SWT) achieving Whose pleasure is the greatest achievement 9:72.
Other derivatives: Flowing of (rivers) 2:25, sailing of (ships) 10:22, blowing of (wind) 21:81, movement of (sun and moon) 13:2, 36:38. They are also used for ships 69:11 which stand like mountain in the water 42:32, this hints at the fact that mountains too project below the surface of the earth like ships below water level. This fact of mountains having roots was discovered recently. One of the derivatives is probably used for comets or black holes 81:15-16.
This word means rivers 2:74 which have been compelled to follow the laws of Allah (SWT) for serving mankind 14:32. We use rivers for irrigation, navigation, power generation food etc. In paradise there are rivers of water, milk, wine and honey 47:15.
The word An Nahaar is used to mean a day which is opposite of night 2:164. Allah (SWT) measures out the night and the day 73:20. This measuring out is so precise that on any day of a solar year the timings of sun rise and sun set are the same every year. The night is made to enter the day and the day is made to enter the night 3:27 indicating a gradual and not an abrupt change. Allah (SWT) makes the night to cover the day 7:54 i.e. the earth comes between us and the sun which causes darkness or night on our side. He winds the night over the day and the day over the night 39:5. He causes the oscillation, (turning and returning at regular intervals) of the night and the day 24:44. The day slips off from the night 36:37 and the night cannot out strip the day 36:40 i.e. we cannot miss a day. The day unveils the sun and the night covers it 91:3-4, 92:1-2. All these verses of the Quran indicate the rotation of the earth. If this rotation is stopped one half of the globe will permanently face the sun and the other half will face permanent darkness i.e. night 28:71-72 like the moon.
Allah (SWT) has made the night for rest and has made things visible during the day time 10:67 when we rise 25:47 so that mankind might seek His grace 30:23 in the form of livelihood 78:11 and has thus compelled the night and the day to follow His laws for our service 14:33.
Other derivatives: Appearing similar 13:16, similar not contradictory 39:23, (cows are) alike 2:70, allegorical 3:7, (the one crucified) was made to resemble (Isa PBH) 4:157. The word ‘Misl’ meaning ‘likeness or similarity’ associated with ‘Tashaabahat’ meaning ‘They are alike or similar’ more or less explains the general meaning of these derivatives as alike, similar, resembling each other.
Other derivatives: A pair consisting of a male and female 42:50, 53:45, each member of the pair wife 4:20, husband 58:1, 2:230 marriage 33:37 etc. They are also used for more than two:-3 kinds 56:7, groups 15:88, kind 38:58, kinds of vegetation 20:53. Allah (SWT) has created everything in pairs 36:36, 51:49, He alone is one 112:1-4. On the day of resurrection the souls will be paired (probably with their respective bodies) 81:7. In paradise males will be paired with (or married to) ‘Huur’ meaning fair ones with wide beautiful eyes 44:54, they will have pure mates therein 3:15. It is stated in the Quran: “Enter the garden you and your mates”. 43:70, here ‘Azwaaj’ may mean companions of the same good qualities, similar appears to be the case in hell 37:22 because it is not necessary that both husband and wife together should deserve paradise or hell, either of them could be good or bad as in the case of the wife of Lut (PBH) being in fire and the wife of Firawn being in paradise 66:10-11.
Other derivatives: Physical cleaning of women after menstruation 2:222, of the couple after intercourse 5:6, and of clothes 74:4. rain water is clean 25:48. These derivatives are also used for removal of uncleanliness 33:33, weakening uneasiness caused by the devil 8:11, sin 7:82, Isa’s (PBH) getting rid of infidels 3:55 etc. These derivatives are further used for cleaning of the hearts 33:53, of Kaab’a 22:26, cleaning and purification through charity 9:103 etc.
This quality of cleanliness is associated with purity 2:222, hearts 5:41, favours of Allah (SWT) 5:6, worship, charity, obeying the orders of Allah (SWT) and His messenger (PBH) 33:33, good 58:12, honour, elevation, virtue 80:11-16, the holy Quran 56:77-80, 98:2, turning towards Allah (SWT) 2:222, guarding against evil etc. 9:108. Allah (SWT) loves those who are clean 9:108. In paradise, the inhabitants will have pure mates 2:25 and pure drinks 76:21.
Paradise has been specified as the place for staying (khuld) 25:15 but elsewhere it is stated that the inhabitants will stay there for ever 4:57. Similarly for hell it is stated that the inmates will stay therein 9:68 but elsewhere it is stated that they will stay therein for ever 4:169. This indicates that the derivatives of these alphabets convey the sense of ‘staying for ever’. This meaning is also evident from the so called tree of immortality through which the devil deceived Adam (PBH) 20:120, 7:20. It is stated that ‘khuld’ meaning immortality in this world was not assigned to anyone because every soul tastes death 21:34-35 Clinging (Akhlada) to the earth 7:176 would mean always remaining with earthy or worldy things in the life of this world. Staying or remaining in paradise or hell for ever is subject to the will of Allah (SWT) 6:128, 11:107-108 who has full authority on everything.
These derivatives mean feeling shy 28:25, 33:53.
Other derivatives: Setting forth (a similitude) 14:24, striking a (comparison) 13:17, preventing from hearing 18:11, setting up (a wall in between) 57:13 keeping away (the reminder) 43:5, effecting with disgrace and wretchedness 2:61 drawing (the head cover) 24:31, striking (the feet while waking) 24:31, striking (or digging the rock for water) 2:60, striking (or causing a dry path in the sea) 20:77, striking off (the neck and the finger tips) 8:12, 47:4, striking (or breaking idols) 37:93, striking (the faces and backs of the infidils at the time of their death by angels) 47:27, striking (or traveling in the earth) 4:94, 73:20.
Other derivatives: Truth 2:42, reality 6:73, right 2:61, 5:116, correct 7:8, justice 38:22, due 6:91, deserving 38:14 incumbent 28:63 etc. which are opposite of falsehood 8:8, lie 6:5, error 10:32, guess 10:36, doubt 3:60, 45:32, deception 31:33, magic 10:76, injustice 38:22, wrong 38:26, not serious 21:55, desire 5:48. Al Haqq is one of the Attributes of Allah (SWT).
Allah (SWT) does what He intends 2:253, He orders what He intends 5:1, when He intends anything He says, ‘Be’ to it and so it is 16:40, 36:82. We should intend to seek the Attention of Allah (SWT) 30:38, if we intend to receive the reward of our good deeds in the world we will get it here and if we intend to receive the reward in the hereafter we can get it there 3:145, 17:18-19. Will is associated with intention 17:18.
It also means too much 11:32, increase 89:12, abundance 7:188 more 74:6, much 42:30 etc. The derivative ‘Aksar’ means majority 2:243,11:17. The opposites are ‘Qaliil’ meaning less 7:86 and ‘Adna’ also meaning less 58:7. Rivalary or competition in worldly increase (ie wealth) 102:1
Those who go beyond the limits set by Allah (SWT) 18:50, those who exceed the limit 10:33, who forget Allah (SWT) 59:19, who do not command according to the Quran 5:47, the hypocrites 9:67, those who sacrifice before idols and draw lots 5:3, who eat something on which the name of Allah (SWT) was not invoked 6:121 or something on which a name other than Allah (SWT) was mentioned 6:145, those who harm the writer and witness of a contract 2:282. The consequence of such acts of transgression is destruction 17:16 and fire 32:20. Exceeding the limit set by Allah (SWT) is associated with infidelity 2:99, 9:84 disobedience 49:7, denial 6:49, deviation from the right 61:5, injustice 2:59, pride 46:20 etc. The opposites of exceeding the limits set by Allah (SWT) are: Believing and doing righteous works 32:18-19, 49:11, being guided 57:26.
Other derivatives: Breaking agreement 8:56, oaths: 16:91, pledge 13:20, physically breaking thread after it has been spun strong 16:92 and burden on the back (which breaks it) 94:3. Breaking of pledges is associated with infidelity 4:155.
Allah (SWT) has made an agreement with human beings that they should not serve the devil and serve Him alone 36:60-61 we are ordered to fulfill the agreement of Allah (SWT) 16:91, those who sell the agreement for a small price will not have any portion in the hereafter 3:77.
Other derivatives: Binding 89:26, 5:7, undertaking 12:66, strength 2:256, pledge 2:83 etc. These are sometimes associated with agreement 13:20.
Derivatives are used for cutting (trees) 59:5 cutting off (the road for robbery) 29:29, tracts (of land) 13:4, part (of the night) 11:81 pieces (of dark night) 10:27, dividing (the affair) 21:93, deciding (an affair) 27:32. The opposite is to join 13:25.
Other derivatives: Enjoin 4:114, command 7:12, advise 26:35, authority 4:59, affair 3:128. Allah’s (SWT) is the creation and the command 7:54, the sky and the earth exist by His command 30:25, His command has to be executed 4:47, it is like the destiny destined 33:38. He governs all the affairs from the sky to the earth 32:5 all affairs go back to Him 11:123, when He decides an affair He just says ‘Be’ to it and it is 2:117, angels and the spirit (Jibreel) come down with all affairs 97:4, every affair has a time/place of happening 54:3. Whoever fears Allah (SWT) He makes his affair easy for him 65:4.
These derivatives are associated with, judgment 12:40, justice 7:29, 16:76, guarding against evil 96:12, decision 2:210, advise 27:32 etc. Disobedience is in opposition to the command 66:6.
Other derivatives: Extending (towards) 11:70, approaching (towards) 11:81, advancing (towards) 28:35 something, reaching 6:136, close association 4:90 etc. The opposite of these derivatives is to cut off 13:25.
Other derivatives: Loss 22:11 to reduce 55:9, to give less 83:3 etc. Those who are the losers are the infidels 40:85, the polytheists 39:65, those who are astray 7:178 unjust 17:82, who take devils as friends 4:119 those involved in falsehood 40:78, those who kill their children foolishly 6:140, those who disobey Allah (SWT) 11:63, those who deny their meeting with Allah (SWT) 6:31, those whose weight of good deeds will be less 7:9, inmates of the hell 8:37, those who seek a religion other than Islam 3:85. Those who are not losers are the ones on whom there is Grace and Mercy of Allah (SWT) 2:64 and whom He protectively forgives 7:23.
Other derivatives: (Gathering) all (magicians) 20:60, assembly 100:5, army 26:56, amass (wealth) 70:18, junction (of two seas) 18:60, collection (of the Quran) 75:17, (Muhammed (PBH) messenger of Allah (SWT) for) the whole (of mankind) 7:158, Friday 62:9 (when all Muslims assemble), gathering (of bones) 75:3, gathering of all on the day of resurrection 5:105 gathering of the sun and the moon 75:9 collective decision 12:15.
(Power is) totally (Allah’s SWT) 2:165 so also the Might 4:139. (Had He willed He would have guided) the whole mankind 13:31. (If He wills He can forgive) all (the sins) 39:53. This word is associated with ‘Hashar’ meaning gathering 6:22. The opposite sense is conveyed by detachments 4:71, separately 24:61, disunited 59:14 etc.
Angels reside in the sky and are sent down to earth 53:26, 17:95 executing various orders of Allah (SWT) as His servants 43:19. There are numerous angels and they bow down before Allah fearing Him (SWT) 16:49, glorifying and praising Him 2:30, 13:13 bearing witness of His unity that there is no god except Him 3:18. They are capable of receiving information, knowledge and communication from Allah (SWT) and conveying His messages to human beings selected by Him, in this sense they too are messengers of Allah (SWT) like human being 2:30 and 32, 8:12, 22:75, 35:1 etc. Such messengers were sent to Zakariyya (PBH) 3:39, Maryam (PBH) 3:42-45, Ibrahim (PBH) 15:53 Lut (PBH) 11:81 etc.
Angels can be transformed to appear like human beings as in the case of Ibrahiim (PBH) and Lut (PBH) 11:69-83, 6:9. Human beings too can be transformed into angels, if Allah (SWT) wills 43:60. Angels are associated with Jibriil (PBH) ‘The Ruuh’ and come down with him with the messages of Allah (SWT) 16:2 and also during Lailat-ul-Qadr (27th Ramadan) for all affairs 97:4. Derivatives of the root alphabets also mean power 7:188, control 23:88, master or owner 3:26, king 12:43 etc. In view of these meanings the word ‘Malaaaik’ translated as ‘Angels’ could also mean ‘Energies’ or ‘Power’. Angels were ordered to bow down before Adam (PBH) but Iblis was questioned for his not bowing down 7:11-12 although he is a jinn, 18:50. This indicates that the word Malaaaik, at least here, conveys the meaning of energies because Iblis is not an angel, still he was included in the order. All energies in the form of angels bowed down before Adam (PBH) except the evil energy in the form of the devil or Iblis.
The sole reason for the scientific and technological progress of man control on various energies. If this control on energies granted by Allah (SWT) by making all angels (energies) to bow down before Adam (PBH) or man is withdrawn by Him, the whole building of Scientific and Technological progress would collapse and probably the whole human race would perish.
Angels praise, glorify obey the orders of and bow down before Allah (SWT) out of reverence for Him which He alone deserves. Their bowing down before man cannot therefore be due to reverence, it could just mean their exhibition of obeying the orders of Allah (SWT) to come under the control of man in the form of various energies so that he could use them for his advancement, their does not appear to be any other concrete reason for the angels to bow down before man in addition to their bowing down before Allah (SWT). This indicates that the whole scientific and technological progress of man is the gift of Allah (SWT) and not his achievement, his achievement would be to bring under control the evil energy of the devil which refused to surrender before him because this is the only way he can enter paradise. On the contrary many men have surrendered to the devil who will lead them to hell. Angels have the capability of lifting weight 2:248 which again hints that they possess energy. They record human deeds 50:17-18, 82:10-11, protect and monitor them 13:11, ask for protective forgiveness of those on earth 42:5, shower mercy on the believer 33:43, descend on them with good news 41:30-32, help 3:125 and influence them 8:12. They shower mercy on prophet Muhammed (PBH) 33:56. They curse and punish the infields 2:161, 8:12 and bring about disaster 15:63. They cause to die 32:11, 16:32, 8:50.
They ascend towards Allah (SWT) in a period which is 50,000 yrs 70:4 and will come down with Him on the day of resurrection to stand in ranks along with Jibriil (PBT) 78:38. On the day of judgment they will be around the throne of Allah (SWT) glorifying and praising Him 69:16-18, 39:75, they will console the believers 21:103 and welcome them to paradise 13:23-24, 39:73. Many angels are incharge of hell too 39:71-72, 66:6, 74:31. We are required to believe in their existence and functions given in the Quran 2:285.
The Quran gives information about the functions or duties of angels but does not give any information about their form and the substance from which they were created. Hazrat Aysha (R.A.) quotes the prophet (PBH) as saying, “Angels have been created from Nuur” [Reported by Muslim].
Angels could therefore be regarded as beings composed of some form of radiant energy or ‘Incharges’ of various energies in the universe whom we cannot perceive through our physical sense but who exert their influence on us without our being conscious of it, just like x-rays which penetrate the human flesh but do not impart any feeling to the human being concerned. Angels are thus beings the effect of whose work is visible but they themselves are not visible.
Other derivatives: Successors who succeeded 19:59 coming after 6:133, 10:92. Inheritance 7:169, left behind 9:118, remain behind 9:83, behind 36:45, replace 34:39 one after another (alternating) 2:164, 25:62 go against 14:22, disagree 11:88 which is associated with doubt 4:157, different 35:27 (No) contradiction in the Quran 4:82, opposite 5:33, rulers 24:55, 7:129 etc. Dawood (PBH) was made a Khalifah i.e. a king or ruler and asked to judge between mankind with justice (according to the Divine revelation) and not to follow his desire 38:26. It is for this purpose that Adam 2:30 and all human beings were made Khalaaa-if-al-arz, successors or rulers of the earth 6:165, 35:39 and this is the test we are undergoing 10:14 to see how we act, whether we implement the Quran in our lives or not.
Blood is forbidden as food 6:145.
Derivatives of these alphabets convey the sense of constantly moving fast in an orbit (like the sun and the moon) 21:33, prolonged occupation i.e. being busy continuously 73:7. Glorification i.e. considering Allah (SWT) high above that which they associate as partners with Him 52:43, high above having a son and high above what the polytheists describe about Him 23:91. In this sense all that is in the skies and the earth glorifies Allah (SWT) but we do not understand their glorification 17:44, 24:41. The angels too glorify 2:30 out of fear of Allah (SWT) 13:13.We are ordered to glorify the name of our Fosterer i.e. Allah 56:74 probably by repeating Subhaan Allah 12:108 and also to glorify Him by praising Him 32:15, this we are required to do specially during long hours of night 76:26.
Glorification of Allah (SWT) is associated with prostrating before Him, remembering Him, praising Him32:15, 20:33-34 honouring and revering Him 48:9, regarding Him Holy 2:30 asking for His protective forgiveness 42:5, Pride 7:206 and injustice 21:87 appear to be hindrances in glorification.
We normally remove our shoes at sacred places to maintain the sanctity of the place. Musa (PBH) was asked to remove his shoes in the valley of Tuwa because of its being holy, sacred etc, 20:12. Musa (PBH) asked his people to enter the holy land 5:21 and warned that if they do not enter then they will turn as losers. This indicates that derivatives of these alphabets in addition to meaning holy also mean something beneficial. It was probably due to the strengthening of Isa (PBH) with the holy spirit (Jibriil) that he was able to speak even in his childhood about things which were holy, exclusively good, free from evil and also highly beneficial 2:87, 5:110. The same holy spirit brought down the Quran 16:102, 26:193 which is again holy, exclusively good, free from evil and highly beneficial. This holy spirit is also known as the trust worthy spirit which indicates that there is no possibility of any contamination in something regarded as holy. The angels regard Allah (SWT) as Holy 2:30. One of the Attributes of Allah (SWT) is ‘Al Qudduus’ 62:1 which would mean One Who is pure, having nothing in Him other than Himself, free from all defects, evils etc. exhibiting unmatched beneficence.
All human beings have been created from one male and one female 49:13 Adam and his wife Hawwa (PBT) 7:27, 4:1. Allah (SWT) taught Adam (PBH) the names of all things i.e. imparted knowledge to him 2:31, blew into him from His spirit 15:29 and made the angels (or incharges of energies) to bow down before him. Iblis, a Jinn 18:50, did not bow down before him considering himself superior to him, Adam was created from clay (matter) and Iblis from fire (energy) 7:11-12. Adam (PBH) was warned that the devil (Iblis) is an enemy of man and he may drive him and his wife out of the comfortable garden 20:117 where Adam and Hawwa (PBT) were asked to stay but with the prohibition of going near a particular tree 2:35. Adam (PBH) not only forgot this prohibition but also had no determination in him 20:115 and was therefore misled by the devil who deceived and tempted them both to eat from the forbidden tree, stating that Allah (SWT) had forbidden that tree because both of them would become angels or immortals after eating from it. They thus fell into the trap and ate from the tree on account of which their shame became manifest to them and they started covering themselves with the leaves of the garden. Before eating from the tree they were not conscious of their shame probably like animals. Due to their disobedience they were sent out of the garden probably with the curse that some of you will be the enemies of others 7:20-25. Then on their repentance Allah (SWT) forgave them and communicated to them that guidance to lead life in the earth would come to them from Him, so whoever follows this guidance he will neither have fear nor grief and those who reject it will be the inmates of hell 2:37-39. Thus Adam (PBH) and his progeny were made successors or rulers of the earth 2:30, 6:166 to establish the legislation of Allah (SWT) which came from time to time through different messengers sent to different nations. The final Divine message containing laws to establish the kingdom of Allah (SWT) was the Holy Quran and the last messenger of Allah (SWT) Muhammed (PBH) 33:40 was sent to the whole mankind till the end of this world.
The descendants of Adam (PBH) i.e. human beings other than Adam and Hawwa (PBT) were created from Turab, Nutfa, Alaqa 22:5 and sulaalatim-min-tiin 23:12.
Turaab is the top soil 2:264 and sulaalatim-min-tiin means something taken out from clay probably meaning plant nutrients. We eat plants as well as the cattle who also eat plants. This food supplies the material for the synthesis of sperm and egg in man and woman respectively. Creation of man from the soil and extraction from clay would mean the material from which the sperm and egg were created and on which human beings depend for their later survival too.
How were the first human beings Adam and Hawwa, the first parents created? The answer to this question is given in the Quran as follows:-
“............ and He (Allah) began the creation of man (Insaan i.e. Adam) from clay (tiin) then made his progeny from something taken out (sulaalah) from the (seminal) fluid (which is ) weakened after vigour (sperm and egg)” 32:7-8.
“O mankind! fear your Fosterer Who created you from a single soul (Adam) and created from it, its mate (Hawwa) and spread from these two many men and women” 4:1.
It is clear that creation of Adam and Hawwa (PBT) was not from the sperm and egg as in the case of their progency. The creation of Adam (PBH) was from clay 38:71, mud 15:28 etc. These facts indicate that Adam (PBH) did not have parents like us. It is very clear from the Quran that Allah (SWT) adopts two methods in bringing things into existence. 1. Through gradual and progressive changes as in the case of the birth of normal human beings 22:5, 23:12-14 and 2. Abrupt or instantaneously a) Creation of a snake from the wooden staff of Musa (PBH) 7:107-108 b) Creation of a live bird from the form a bird moulded in clay (tiin), a miracle performed through Isa (PBH) 3:44-49 c) transformation of sinning human beings into apes and pigs 2:65, 5:60, 7:166.
These abrupt changes are known as ‘Miracles’ because they appear to be against all known laws of nature. Miracles are performed only by Allah (SWT) mostly through his messengers, for whom they are proofs of their messengership. No one else can perform such miracles going against the laws of nature except Allah (SWT) who has not only framed these laws but can also break them, its a challenge and a miracle cannot be explained scientifically. The birth of normal human beings is in accordance with normal laws of nature framed by Allah (SWT). It is possible that Adam (PBH) was created from mud, clay etc like the live bird created from clay through Isa (PBH) 3:45-49. The creations of Adam and Hawwa (PBT) appears to be miracles defying all the known laws of nature as we have understood them. Isa (PBH) was created without a father 3:47, Adam and Hawwa (PBH) appear to have been created without a father and a mother. This is not difficult for Allah (SWT) because He is All powerful 2:20 and when He intends anything He just says ‘Be’ and it is 16:40. Adam and Hawwa (PBT) were asked to go down (Ahbituu) from the garden 2:38. Words associated with ‘Ahbituu’ are used in the Quran for going down of someone by himself or falling down of something by itself from a higher place on earth to a lower level on earth itself 2:61, 2:74, 11:48. Therefore the garden refered to above appears to have been on earth itself but at a higher altitude. The garden from which Adam and Hawwa (PBT) were sent down appears to be different from the garden of paradise because it is presently unseen 19:61.
In view of this it appears that Adam (PBH) was created from clay (tiin) fraction of the mud (salsaal) taken from the top soil (turaab) of the earth. If the verses 20:55, 53:32 and 71:17-18 in which the creation, production and growth of mankind from earth is mentioned, also includes Adam (PBH), it further supports the assumption that Adam (PBH) was created from the material belonging to the earth and the garden from which he was sent out along with Hawwa (PBH) was also on earth.
Allah (SWT) has not mentioned clearly the manner in which He created Adam and Hawwa (PBT), and we cannot know it unless He informs us 2:255. He has kept it a secret. It is therefore better to leave it as secret compared to making erratic guesses. He said, ‘Be’ and they were there 2:117, 16:40.
Other derivatives: Speak 2:235, keep away 17:83, turn away 18:57, avoid 66:3, desertion 4:128, extension 57:21, lengthy 41:51, gain 9:42, apparent good 4:94, hindrance 2:224, (rain) cloud 46:24.
Other derivatives: Information 66:3, news 6:34, it is stated that for every news there is a fixed place and time 6:67. Messenger of Allah (SWT) is known as a ‘Nabi’ translated as prophet. Its not in the nature of a prophet to cheat 3:161, prophethood was in the descendants of Nuh and Ibrahim (PBT) 57:26, we are required to believe in all prophets sent by Allah (SWT) 2:177, Muhammed (PBH) was the last prophet 33:40.
Words associated with these derivatives are interpretation 12:37, news 9:94, knowledge 66:3, communication from Allah (SWT) 12:15. Those who oppose the prophets are the devils from among mankind and jinn 6:112 and the Criminals 25:31.
Other derivatives: Wisdom 16:125, 38:20, judgment 5:42, order 5:1,13:41, establish or make firm 22:52. These derivatives are associated with knowledge 2:32, information 6:18, might 2:129, accepting of repentance 24:10 being high 42:51.
The Wise and The Judge are Attributes of Allah (SWT). He is the One Who has wisdom on the basis of which He judges and orders and the judgment or order is firmly established. The meaning of Al Hakiim as the Wise suits when this Attribute is used with the Attributes, the knowing, the informed, but when it is used with the Attributes the Mighty and the High it may mean one Firmly Established, Unshakable.
Also used for desert 12:100, the opposite words mean hiding 6:28, 5:99, 2:284.
Hiding (the truth) 2:42, (the witness) 2:283, (belief) 40:28, opposite of which is to manifest 24:29.
Whoever and whatever is in the skies and the earth bows down (Yasjuduu) before Allah (SWT) willingly or unwillingly and their shadows too in the morning and evening 13:15. The sun, moon, stars, mountain, trees 55:6, living beings and many human beings also bow down before Allah (SWT) 22:18 along with angels and they fear their Fosterer above them and do what they are command 16:49-50 i.e. follow the laws of nature laid down by Allah (SWT) for them to follow.
According to the known laws of nature opaque bodies have to cast their shadows, the sun, moon and stars have to move in their orbits performing their duties, the plants and animals have to follow the laws of birth, growth, decay and death laid down by Allah (SWT) for their peaceful existence. Divine revelations, the final form of which is the Holy Quran, contain laws for the peaceful existence of human beings. ‘Sajdah’ could therefore be defined as following the laws of Allah (SWT) exhibiting submission and reverence to Him. Our sajdah in salat is the exhibition of our submission and reverence to Allah (SWT) in accordance with the laws laid down in the Quran and illustrated by prophet Muhammed (PBH). The opposite feeling is conveyed when one considers oneself great 16:49. We should not prostrate before the sun or the moon but we should prostrate before Allah (SWT) Who created them 41:37 as we do during salat 4:102.
The bowing down of angels before Adam (PBH) does not appear to be due to reverence but a symbolic representation of energies being made submissive to mankind. The bowing down of eleven planets, the sun and the moon before Yusuf (PBH) in his dream 12:4 and later of his family; 12:100 appear to be symbolic and traditional respectively. Sajdah is associated with glorification of Allah (SWT), 7:206, recitation of the Quran 84:21, repentance, worshipping and praising Allah (SWT) fasting, enjoining good, forbidding evil and keeping within the limits set by Allah (SWT) 9:112, believers are ordered to perform sajdah and worship 22:77.
The word ‘Masjid’ means the place/time for performing ‘Sajdah’. We are ordered to set right our attention at every place/time of prostration (i.e. salat) and pray to Allah (SWT) making religion exclusively for Him 7:29 and also to take care of our adornments while going to the mosques 7:31. Mosques are Allah’s (SWT) so we are not to pray to anyone else along with Him 72:18. The most unjust are those who prevent people from the mosques of Allah (SWT), that His name should be remembered there and strive to ruin them. In fact they should enter them in fear 2:114. Polytheists and infidels are not to visit the mosques of Allah (SWT) 9:17. Allah (SWT) has blessed the precincts (neighborhood) of Masjid-il-aqsa in Jerusalem 17:1. We are required to turn our faces towards the direction of Masjid-il-Haraam i.e. Kaba in Mecca wherever we are 2:144. It may be noted that we face towards the Kaab’a but bow before Allah (SWT) 41:37.
Name of the devil associated with Adam (PBH) for details see Shayaatinihim Word No. 58
(Hearts) refuse 9:8, not allow 9:32. These derivatives are associated with pride 2:34, denial 20:56, fear 33:72, the opposite of which is pleasing 9:8.
Other derivatives: Growing up in age (time) 4:6 being big in size (space) 6:78, great in position or status 28:39, great (reward) 11:11 hard (difficult) 42:13.
Al kabiir and Al Mutakabbir are Attributes of Allah (SWT) conveying the sense of His being Great and possessing Greatness. These Attributes are associated with many other Attributes mentioned in 59:22-24, 18:9, 22:62.
Words which convey the opposite meanings are degraded 7:13, weak 14:21, humility 46:20, worship, glorification, prostration 7:206, humble 2:45, small 32:21 Greatness belongs only to Allah (SWT) 45:37.
Other derivatives : Rest (at night) 10:67, settle (the family) 14:37, settling (of water in earth) 23:18, stationary (shade) 25:45, stationary (wind) 42:33, peace and security 9:103, tranquility (in hearts) 48:4, tranquility (through mates) 30:21, houses 34:15, wretchedness 2:61, poverty 2:184, knife 12:31.
One of the derivatives is associated with orphans 2:83 and the opposite sense is conveyed by movement (for seeking the Grace of Allah (SWT) during day time) 28:73, movement (of wind) 42:33, movement (by removal) 23:18
Other derivatives : Eating 24:61, consumption (by fire) 3:183, swallowing (wealth) 2:188, swallowing (usury) 3:130, absorbing (wealth) 4:2, eating off (inheritance) etc. They are also used for eating in paradise 13:35 and in hell 37:66.
In abundance 16:112.
Other derivatives :Nearness (in space) 2:35, nearness (in time) 4:17, nearness (in abstract sense) 7:56 nearness (to an act) 4:43, sacrifice 5:27 [for achieving nearness of Allah SWT], relatives i.e near ones 2:83.
Words with opposite meaning are distance in space 9:42 and far away in time 70:6-7 Al Qariib is an Attribute of Allah (SWT) meaning The Nearest 2:186 which is associated with response 11:61 and hearing 34:50. Allah (SWT) is the Nearest 50:16, 56:85 with respect to both space and time.
(Fire from green) tree 36:80, tree of Zaqquum (in hell) 56:52. Also used for dispute 4:65.
Other derivatives : Injustice 2:231 and reduction 18:33. Those who are unjust are the infidels 2:254, polytheists 31:13, those who fabricate a lie against Allah (SWT) 3:94, who exceed the limits set by Allah (SWT) 65:1, who do not judge according to Divine revelations 5:45, who do not repent 49:11, who prevent people from the mosques of Allah (SWT) where His name is remembered and try to ruin them 2:114. Allah (SWT) does not like the unjust 3:140 and they will be punished 10:52.
These derivatives are associated with indecency and sin 3:135, loss 7:9, failure 20:111 ignorance 33:72.
The opposites of these derivatives are good 35:32, 37:113, 27:11, justice 10:47, truth 39:69 repentance and amendment 5:39, success 6:21 guidance 6:144, mercy 76:31, belief 6:82.
The devil causes to slip 3:155. Slipping (of foot) the opposite of which is establishment or firmness 16:94.
Other derivatives : Going down or falling from a higher level to a lower level on earth itself. Falling down (of rocks) 2:74, coming down from the ship and the mountain 11:48 and going down (to a city) 2:61.
Other derivatives : One another 52:25, each other 35:40.
Allah (SWT) is the enemy of the infidels 2:98, devil is an open enemy of man 12:5, 18:50 and tries to put mutual enemity through intoxicants and games of chance 5:91. The opposite sense is given by love 20:39 and unity of hearts 3:103.
Other derivatives : Staying (in houses) 33:33, staying (of the child in the womb) 22:5, stability 14:26, comfort (of the eyes) 33:51, coolness (of the eye) 19:26.
Every news has a fixed time and place 6:67 and every affair has a fixed time and space of happening 54:3. One of the derivatives is used to mean glass 27:44.
(The paradise is a good place for) staying 25:24 (and the hell an evil place for) staying 25:66.
The opposite meaning is conveyed through exposure 33:33 and grief 20:40.
Other derivatives : The provisions of the life of this world 3:14, provision for the divorced women 2:241, for things (in the sense of belongings) 12:17, for property 12:79, profit 2:196, enjoyment 25:18. The life of the world is said to be a deceptive provision 3:185. The provision of this world is little and the hereafter is better for one who guards against evil 4:77. It is associated with eating and false hopes 15:3. The opposite of this brief enjoyment is hell 3:197 and harsh punishment 31:24.
Period 76:1, when 11:5.
Other derivatives : Isa (PBH) was a word from Allah (SWT) 3:45 he spoke in childhood 5:110. Allah (SWT) spoke to Musa (PBH) 7:143, 2:253, 42:51, before the day of resurrection an animal from the earth will speak 27:82 and on the day of judgment hands of human beings will speak 36:65. The Quran is called the word of Allah (SWT) 9:6.
‘Tawbah’ is translated as repentance i.e. to experience such sorrow for sin that it should produce amendment in life. The sequence of events after committing a sin for its forgiveness by Allah (SWT) is 1. Repentance 2. Belief 3. Righteous work and 4. Guidance on the straight path 20:82. In another sequence it is: 1. Repentance 2. Amendment 3. Holding fast to Allah (SWT) and making religion exclusively for Him 4:145-146 i.e. obeying only His orders by implementing the Quran as Prophet Muhammed (PBH) taught us to do.
Repentance is thus a practical event or deed and not just a feeling or emotion of sorrow for a wrong act. For people whose repentance is accepted by Allah (SWT) their evil deeds are changed to good deeds because Allah (SWT) is protectively Forgiving and Merciful 25:69-71.
Allah (SWT) accepts the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance and repent soon. He does not accept the repentance of those who go on doing evil deeds until death and then repent nor for those who die as infidels, for such persons a painful punishment has been prepared 4:17-18. Allah (SWT) is the Acceptor of repentance‘At tawwaab’ 9:104 He can forgive all sins 39:53. If people repent Allah (SWT) showers His mercy in this world too 11:52. The words associated with these derivatives are pity 9:117, mercy and love 11:90, wisdom 24:10, and when repentance is not accepted, a person is liable to be punished 3:128.
Derivatives of these alphabets convey the sense of practically following someone or something: - (I) follow ( pleasure of Allah (SWT) 3:162; Quran and Muhammad (PBH) 7:157; 3:31, the path of Allah (SWT ) 6:153, Qibla 2:145, Guidance 20:123, the truth 47:3, (II) Do not follow (him whose heart is heedless of the remembrance of Allah (SWT) 18:28 the devil 7:18 Charity by stressing obligation and annoyance 2:262, desire without guidance from Allah (SWT) 28:50, enjoyment 11:116, falsehood 47:3, conjecture 6:148. These derivatives are also used for (curse) following 28:42, devil following a person 7:175, a community following another community 77:17, flame following the devils 15:16, Firawn following Musa’s (PBH) followers 10:90, month following a month 4:92 and helpers (who can follow you) 17:69. The opposite is disobedience 11:59, 14:36.
Other derivatives : Fear is associated with future except the fear of Allah (SWT) which exists in all the three tenses. We are informed that the devil makes us afraid of his friends, we should not fear them but fear Allah (SWT) if we claim to be believers 3:175 who are informed by the angels (probably at the time of death or in the hereafter) not to fear 41:30. Angels glorify and praise Allah (SWT) due to His fear 13:13. One who fears to stand before Allah (SWT) and restrains himself from evil, for him is the paradise 79:40, 55:46.
Fear is associated with injustice and sin 2:182, punishment in the hereafter 11:103 threatening 14:14, confrontation or desertion of a wife by the husband 4:35 and 128, heirs 19:5 Musa (PBH) when he went away from Firawn’s people 26:21, grief 28:7, hunger and loss 2:155, hope 7:56, humility 7:205, enemy 2:239, poverty 9:28, being eaten by a wolf 12:13, denial 26:12, of being killed 28:33, mistrust 8:58, being kidnaped 8:26, each other 30:28. The devil fears Allah (SWT) 8:48. The opposite feeling is of peace and security 24:55, 106:4.
Grief is associated with departure of son 12:13 sorrow 12:84, distress 3:153, weakness 3:139 fear 29:33 etc. The opposite sense is given by coolness or comfort of the eye 20:40. There will be no fear or grief in paradise 7:49.
Other derivatives : ‘Sign to recognize something’ 3:41. In this sense they have been used for (1) sentences of the Quran 2:252, 15:1, (2) natural phenomena 16:10-13, (3) miracles performed through the messengers of Allah (SWT) 3:49 which cannot be done without the order or permission of Allah (SWT) 40:78, (4) for disastrous brought about by Allah (SWT) on people who disobeyed Him 11:103, 15:77, 25:37 etc. All these are signs of the existence and power of Allah (SWT) and those who are impressed by them are those who understand 2:164, 20:54, 27:84 who reflect 2:219 who have knowledge 9:11, those who recognize signs 15:75, who are certain 2:118, who are grateful 7:58, who guard against evil 10:6, who listen 10:67, who inquire 12:7, who are patient 14:5, who believe 16:79 etc.
Allah (SWT) shows His signs so that people may receive guidance 3:103, guard against evil 2:187, be mindful 2:221 and thus they may return (to the path of Allah SWT) 7:174. Only infidels dispute about the signs of Allah (SWT) 40:4 and the punishment of such people is hell fire 2:39.
Miracles performed through messengers of Allah (SWT) served as the authority 11:96 and proof 28:32 of their being messengers of Allah (SWT).
The word Aayat has also been used for a monument built by human beings 26:128.
The exact meaning conveyed through the derivatives of these alphabets is company 18:76, 31:15 and companions 56:8-9 but for those in the fire of hell and gardens of paradise 59:20 the word ‘Inhabitants’ seems to be better than ‘companions’. These derivatives have been used to mean wife 6:101 and those who are defended 21:43 (probably by their companions).
Other derivatives : Son 7:150, 2:87 daughter 28:27 and wayfarer 2:177.
Prophet Ibrahim (PBH) had two sons Ismail and Ishaaq (PBT) 2:133 and after them prophethood was confined to their progeny 57:26. Yaquub (PBH) also known as Israel 3:93 was the son of Ishaaq (PBH) 12:6, 2:132. Banii Israel translated as the children of Israel are the descendants of Yaquub or Israel (PBH) whose native place was Palestine. On the invitation of Yousuf (PBH) son of Israel (PBH), the whole family of Israel migrated to Egypt 12:100 (between 19th to 17 century B.C). They were honoured very much due to their relationship with Yousuf (PBH). They became a big community consisting of 12 tribes 7:160 within 400 years but were gradually converted to serve as slaves of the ruling Egyptians 2:49. They were ultimately delivered from the tortures of the Egyptians through Musa (PBH) 44:30, 10:90-93 who took them back towards Palestine (somewhere between 14th to 12th century B.C). After Musa (PBH) Dawood (PBH) 5:78, Sulaiman (PBH) and Isa (PBH) 5:72 were the prominent messengers of Allah (SWT) in the progeny of Ishaaq (PBH). After a long history of ups and downs they were forced out of Palestine. Their largest group migrated to and settled down in Madina in anticipation of the fulfillment of the prophecy that the last messenger (PBH) of Allah (SWT) 33:40 was to appear in Arabia. They were expecting that the last prophet would be from among the Banii Israel, therefore they were envious 2:109 when Muhammed (PBH) from, the descendants of Ismael (PBH) was chosen by Allah (SWT) as His last messenger and consequently started opposing him. Since the state of Israel was carved out in late forties, thousands of Jews have migrated to this state which is predicted in the Quran as follows : And We said to the children of Israel after him (Firawn). Dwell in the earth, but when the promise of the hereafter comes to pass, we will bring you together (as a gathering of people coming from different directions) 17:104.
Zikr means remembering which is opposite of forgetting. The devil makes men forget good things 12:42. Other derivatives : Keeping in mind 2:152, recollection 79:35, reminding 2:282, mentioning before someone 12:42, admonishing 50:45 being mindful 40:58 etc.
Rememberance of Allah (SWT) is to be followed by reflection on His creation for His glorification 3:191. Remembrance is associated with truth and admonition or exhortation 11:120.
The Quran is called ‘The Reminder’ 15:9 36:69 which contains admonitions 38:1 and which is easy to remember 54:17 we have been ordered to remember Allah (SWT) much (i.e. always keep Him in mind) 33:21 and 41, so that He should also remember us 2:152. This remembrance should be within ourselves with humility and fear and we should not be heedless of Him 7:205, wealth and children should not divert us from His remembrance, then we will be losers 63:9.
Salat is for remembrance of Allah (SWT) 20:14, 62:9-10, 29:45. Mosques are meant for remembering Allah (SWT) 2:114 He is to be remembered during Hajj 2:200. One of the duties of prophet Muhammed (PBH) was to remind 88:21, 87:9-13. Remembrance of Allah (SWT) leads to peace of mind and heart 13:28. Intellectuals are mindful 2:269, 38:29, 39:21.
The sign of belief is fear of Allah (SWT) when He is mentioned 8:2, the skins and hearts of such believers soften towards the remembrance of Allah (SWT) 39:23 and they prostrate, glorifying and praising Him 32:15. Reminding benefits the believers 51:55.
The name of Allah (SWT) should be mentioned on what we eat 6:118 and we should not eat that on which His name is not mentioned 6:121.
Whenever something wrong is done we should remember Allah (SWT) and seek His forgiveness for our sins 3:135. The sign of infidelity is that when one is reminded through the Quran he turns away 18:57 and he becomes bored 39:45.
When people turn away from the remembrance of Allah (SWT) He Himself appoints a devil on such persons, the devil turns them away from the right way but they think that they are rightly guided 43:36-37, therefore we should keep Allah (SWT) in mind as much as it is possible. The effort of the devil is to turn human beings away from and make them forget the remembrance of Allah (SWT) and offering Salat 5:91, such people are members of the devil’s team which is at loss 58:19. When evil thoughts arise due to the devil we should remember Allah (SWT) when we will be able to see right 7:201 one who purifies himself, remembers Allah (SWT) and offers salat is successful 87:14-15.
Other derivatives:Fulfilling (an agreement) 3:76, giving back full (measure and weight that is due) 7:85 giving full reward (of the deeds in this world) 11:15, giving full reward (on the day of resurrection) 3:185 and taking away (the soul or consciousness of human beings during sleep and at the time of death along with life) 39:42, 6:60-61.
Following verse of the Quran explains one of the derivatives of these alphabets.
“And be prepared for (fighting with) them (i.e. the infidels) with whatever force you can muster and with companies of horses (cavalry) to frighten (Turhibuun) thereby the enemy of Allah and your enemy .............” 8:60. The magicians called by Firawn sought to frighten the people 7:116, Monks 9:34 practicing monasticism 57:27 (i.e. living in seclusion probably beings afraid that they will get involved in worldly life). Fear appears to be the inherent meaning in all the derivatives. We should fear only Allah (SWT) 16:51.
Derivatives of these alphabets convey the meaning of : first 3:96 the opposite of which is the last 5:114, ancients 17:59, original 20:21, earlier 28:43, close or near 20:84, possessors (of knowledge) 3:18, recipients 4:95.
Other derivatives : Less 8:44, little 16:117 the opposite of which is more 4:7, one of these derivatives is associated with weakness 72:24 and one derivative is used to mean bring up 7:57.
Other derivatives : Covering 3:71, clothing 7:26, wearing 16:14, coats of mail 21:80, (green) robes (in paradise) 18:31 (Night as a) covering when the earth covers the sun 25:47, (spouses as) garments (of each other) 2:187 and confusion (intelligence covered with something doubtful) 6:9 and 137.
This word also means something worthless 2:264, vain 47:33 and to falsify 8:8. Falsehood (cannot enter the Quran) 41:42, (that which people call upon besides Allah (SWT) is) falsehood 22:62 (Those who believe in) falsehood (and reject Allah (SWT) are the losers) 29:67. Falsehood (neither originates anything nor reproduces) 34:49. (Allah (SWT) will abolish) falsehood 42:24. (Infidels follow) falsehood 47:3. The opposite of falsehood is the truth 3:71, 17:81.
Other derivatives: Purification (of soul) 91:9-10 (through wealth) 92:18, purification (of food) 18:19 and purification (of wealth) 9:103. Wealth belongs to Allah (SWT) 2:284, 24:33, 57:7. He distributes it among human beings according to His will 34:36. He orders that wealth should flow from the rich to the poor 59:7 in the form of ‘Zakaat’ and ‘Sadaqa’ 2:110, 9:60 and not in the reverse direction as ‘Riba’ or usury 30:39. Zakaat is treated as a loan given to Allah (SWT) Who returns it after multiplying it 73:20. Charity in the form of Zakaat or Sadaqa should not be followed by stressing one’s obligation or annoying 2:264. Those who do not give Zakaat possess one quality of polytheists 41:6-7 and polytheism is an unforgivable sin 4:48.
The term Zakaat has been translated as Islamic tax, poor due, poor rate, charity etc. but these words fail to convey the real meaning of the term. This term appears to convey the dual meaning of personal purification and growth of the community through distribution of wealth. Technically it refers to the small part of the wealth of rich Muslims which was in their possession for one lunar year, which they give away to the poor Muslims as part of their religious duty, with a good intention of helping them to meet their essential expenses, seeking the Attention of Allah (SWT) 92:17-21.
Zakaat is contrasted on personal level with sin and indecency 24:21 and 30 and with ‘Riba’ meaning usury on the social level 30:39, Allah (SWT) purifies whom He wills 24:21. These derivatives are associated with belief 9:18, holding fast to Allah (SWT) 22:78 Sadaqa (charity) 9:103, Salat 2:83, guarding against evil 7:156, repentance 9:5 cleanliness 2:232 etc.
(Keeping the upper half of the body parallel to the ground supporting it with the palms kept on the knees before performing prostration during salat). The order in this verse to bow down with those who bow down appears to mean offering salat in congregation.
This bowing down is associated with prostration and worship 22:77, turning to Allah (SWT) 38:24, repentance, praising Allah (SWT), who fast, who enjoin good and forbid evil and remain within limits 9:112, who go round Kaba, those who stay therein for devotion 2:125, 22:26.
Other derivatives: Kindness 60:8, being dutiful 19:14, virtuous 80:16 etc. Details of one who is righteous are given in 2:177. These derivatives are associated with mercy 52:28 justice 60:8, guarding against evil and reconciliation 2:224. The opposite sense is conveyed by being infidels 76:4-5 rebellious and disobedient 19:14, wretched 19:32, sinful and transgressing 5:2, 82:14. The word ‘Barr’ is used for land which is associated with sea 5:96. One of the Attributes of Allah (SWT) is Al Barr meaning Benign (obliging, kind) 52:28.
The only meaning of derivatives of these alphabets is forgetting, the opposite of which is reminding 5:14, 18:57 and computing (keeping record) 58:6.
Other derivatives: Reading a book 29:48, reading the Quran 27:92 reading loud so as to be heard 45:8, tell 18:83. That which is read is associated with news 28:3, 5:27, writing 29:48, purification, teaching, law, wisdom 2:151, understanding 10:16 and practically following 2:102, 75:18.
This indicates that reading the Quran involves wisdom, understanding, teaching and practically following it, thus reflecting it in faith and deed like the moon reflecting sunlight 91:1-2. This procedure was followed by our prophet (PBH) and his companions 2:121.
In Vs 91:2 the term ‘Talaaha’ means ‘It (i.e. the moon) reflects it (i.e. the sunlight)’. Words framed from these derivatives convey the sense of reflection and we read only due to reflection, if there is no light or no reflection from the surface on which something is written then we cannot read. The term Tilaawat-i-Quran would thus mean reading by reflection (not just recitation) and further reflection of what is read, through faith and deed which is the best way of propagating Islam followed by our prophet (PBH) and his companions (R.A).
Other derivatives: Sense and understanding 2:73 and 75 which are associated with knowledge 29:43, hearing 67:10, seeing (for instance the alternation of the day and the night) 23:80 22:46 hearts or minds 22:46 and guidance 2:170, the opposite of which is being deaf, dumb and blind 2:171.
‘Sabr’ meaning patience is, in general, the tolerance exhibited by human beings during unfavorable circumstances like poverty, adversity, conflict 2:177 fear, hunger, loss of wealth and life, fruits, 2:155, denial, annoyance 6:34, harm 14:12 etc. When such things happen to those who are patient, they say, “We are Allah’s and we have to return to Him 2:156.
Derivatives of these alphabets also convey the sence of restrain 18:28, constancy 19:65 and adherence 25:42. Those who are patient repel evil with good 41:34-35.Patience is associated with trust in Allah (SWT) 16:42, seeking His Attention, 13;22 turning to Him 38:44, glorifying and praising Him 20:130, struggling in His path 16:110, salat 2:153, certainty 32;24 determination 31;17, strength, fear of Allah (SWT) 3:200, guarding against evil 3:186 righteousness 11:11, gratitude 14:5, forgiveness 42:43, considering social life as a trial 25:20, truth 103:3, truthfulness, obedience spending, seeking forgiveness of Allah (SWT) 3:17, compassion 90:17, firmness 2:250 etc. Words which give the opposite meaning of patience convey the sense of impatience 14:21, retaliation 16:126, ignorance 18:68, hastening 46:35.
We are ordered to be patient 70:5, 90:17 and to pray for bestowing the quality of patience 2:250, Allah(SWT) loves those who are patient 3:146 and saves them from harm and grants them paradise 76:11-12
Other derivatives: Humility which is associated with voices 20:108, hearts 57:16, weeping 17:109, fear of Allah (SWT) 59:21, salat 23:2, being quick in doing good, praying with hope and fear 21:90, Muslims, Momins, obedience, truthfulness, patience, charity, fasting, guarding chastity, remembering Allah (SWT) much 33:35 and on the day of resurrection it will be associated with disgrace when the eyes will be humbled 70:44.
In one case it conveys the sense of barrenness of the earth, the opposite of which is stirring and swelling for growth of vegetation on receiving rain 41;39.
Other derivatives: Guess 38:24, expectation 75:28, thought 10:24 suspicion 49:12 etc. These derivatives are associated with lie 6:116 and desire 53:23, the opposite of which are knowledge 45:24, 4:157 and truth 10:36.
Other derivatives: Grace 4:32, favour 2:47, bounty 57:29, excellence 16:71, superiority 23:24 preference 7:39 etc.
They are associated with favour of Allah (SWT) 3:171 and His pleasure 3:174, mercy 2:64, pardon 3:152, riches 9:28, charity 9:75 financial capability 24:22, good deeds 35:32 forgiveness 2:268 etc.
The opposite meanings are conveyed by the words, niggardliness 9:76, evil 8:29 jealously 4:54, poverty 24:32 etc.
Allah (SWT) is the Possessor of great grace 2:105 He bestows His Grace on whom He wills 57:29. Sending of prophet Muhammed (PBH) for teaching human beings, the implementation of the Quran was due to His great grace 62:1-4. We should be grateful to Allah (SWT) for His grace 10:60. Safety from punishment in hell and living in paradise, having therein what one wills for, is a great grace 44:56-57, 42:22, 57:21. We should ask Allah (SWT) for His grace 4:32.
In addition to this, derivatives of these alphabets mean reward 76:12 and ‘Jizyah’ 9:29. ( Tax taken from non Muslims in an Islamic state for providing them with full protection ).
Other derivatives: Accept (testimony) 24:4, accept (repentance) 9:104, accept (prayer) 14:40, turn to 37:27, towards 2:177, come forward 51:29 come towards 37:94, 46:24, front 12:26 face each other 15:47, facing 12:71, face to face 17:92, Qibla, direction of Kaba towards which Muslims face during salat 2:143-144 oppose 27:37, before (earlier) 2:25 tribe 7:27, 49:13.
Other derivatives: Mediation 7:53, recommend i.e. helping others to do something while doing it ourselves 4:85, even (number) opposed to odd (number) 89:3. Mediation and recommendation are associated with guardianship 6:51, trade and friendship 2:254, 40:18, requital, compensation, help 2:123 etc.
Other derivatives: Catching 13:32, seizing 7:150, holding on 2:206, taking hold 29:14, with holding 24:2, taking away 6:46, 2:229, taking out 7:172, taking up 10:24, take 20:39, accept 3:81, afflict 6:42, make 18:21 etc.
Other derivatives: Equality 4:3, 6:1, balance 82:7, compensation 6:70, justice 42:15 etc. they are associated with guidance 7:159, truth 6:115, guarding against evil and fear of Allah (SWT) 5:8, judgment 4:58 being on the straight path 16:76, good 16:90 reconciliation 49:9 etc. We are ordered not to follow our desires while executing justice 4:135.
Other derivatives: Helping in weakness 3:123, defending after injustice 42:41 and Christians 2:62. Those whom Allah (SWT) helps are the victors 37:116, no one can overcome them 3:160, He helps whom He wills 30:5 but He has made it incumbent on Himself to help the believers 30:47.
Help is associated with guardianship of Allah (SWT) 2:107 and victory 61:13. It is also associated with guidance 25:31 and giving shelter 8:72.
Other derivatives: Being safe 12:45, safety from punishment 11:58, 44:30, delivery from danger 23:28, from distress 20:40, 37:76, from fire 29:24, from drowning 2:50, from enemy 20:80, from unjust people 28:25. Allah (SWT) delivers us from every distress 6:64, He has made it incumbent on Himself to deliver the believers i.e. keep them safe 10:103. Few derivatives are used to mean secret consultations 58:12 (probably because these secret talks are held at places and times when they are safe from other people hearing them). Secret talks should not be held for sin, transgression and disobedience to the messenger of Allah (SWT), but they should be held for righteousness and guarding against evil 58:9, enjoining charity, good and reconciliation between people seeking Allah’s (SWT) pleasure, such an act has a great reward 4:114. There is no secret talk but Allah (SWT) is with them wherever they are and on the day of resurrection He will inform them of that which they did, He knows everything 58:7 such talks are associated with secrecy 21:3 and hiding 9:78.
Also used for family (of Musa PBH) 2:248, (of Ibrahiim PBT) 3:33
The king of Egypt 43:51 during the period of Musa (PBH), he considered himself great in the earth 10:83, inflicting severe punishment on the children of Israel, killing their sons and letting their daughters live 2:49, Musa (PBH) was ordered by Allah (SWT) to go to Firawn 20:24, to deliver the children of Israel 7:105. Musa (PBH) informed Firawn that he was a messenger of Allah (SWT) 7:104, Firawn’s people considered the miracles 11:96-97, 27:10-12 as magic 7:109, so magicians were invited to defeat Musa (PBH) 7:113. When the staff of Musa (PBH) swallowed the ropes and rods of the magicians 26:44-45, they fell down prostrating, believing in Allah (SWT) 26:46-47. People of Firawn were tried through adversities 7:130 and finally they were drowned and children of Israel saved 10:90, 2:50, 7:137. Firawn’s wife was a believer 66:11.
For more detail see 7:103-137, 10:75-92, 20:9-79, 26:10-67, 28:4-43, 40:23-46. Haaman was an associate of Firawn.
Inflicting or afflicting (severe punishment) 7:167, killing sons and letting daughters live 7:141.
These derivatives are mostly used to mean women 12:30 and sometimes wives 4:129.
These derivatives convey the sense of test 47:31, examining 10:30 and trial 68:17. The items through which human beings are tried are good and evil 7:168, 21:35, glamour 18:7, fear, hunger, loss of wealth, life, fruits 2:155 some people with others 47:4, social and economic differences 6:165, oaths 16:92, striving and patience 47:31, wars 8:17, 33:11, honour and favour 89:15, straitening of provision 89:16, gratitude and ingratitude 27:40, hearing and sight 76:2, secrets of the hearts 3:154.
The purpose of creating the skies and the earth 11:7 and life and death 67:2 is to test human beings, so as to send the successful to paradise and the failures to hell.
One derivative is used to mean down fall 20:120.
Other derivatives: Separation 5:25, distinction 44:4, 2:136 dividing 6:159, 17:106, difference 2:285, distinguishing 77:4, party 9:122, the differences being due to disagreement 3:105. We are ordered not to be divided 3:103. If one fears Allah (SWT) He assigns the power of distinction between right and wrong 8:29. The Quran distinguishes between right and wrong 2:185. In the hereafter one party will be in paradise and the other in hell 42:7.
Only in one verse 9:56, a derivative is translated as ‘afraid’ by practically all popular translators where it could also mean ‘different’.
Ships mostly sail in seas and oceans 2:164. Stars help in finding out the direction in the darkness of land or seas and oceans 6:97. Bani Israel are supposed to have crossed the Red sea 7:138. In view of this the word Bahar would mean sea or ocean. (See Word 595 in 2:267 for river)
Other derivatives: Looking at (each other) 9:127, looking at (the stars) 37:88, reflecting (about future) 59:18 examining (how they act) 10:14, reflecting on 12:109, 86:5, pondering 30:50, waiting 2:210, giving time 7:14, 2:162 etc.
Other derivatives: Promise 5:9, appointment 20:59, 18:59 and threatening 7:70, 50:45 probably refering to the promised punishment. The devil makes false promises and goes against them 4:120, 14:22. Whereas the promise of Allah (SWT) is true and He does not go against it 46:17, 4:122, 3:9. Allah (SWT) has promised the hypocrites and the infidels hell 9:68 and the believers paradise 9:72
He was sent to Firawn and his people 20:24, Firawn was the king of Egypt 43:51 and considered himself great in the earth 10:83. He inflicted severe punishment on the Bani Israel, killing their sons and letting their daughters live 2:49. Musa (PBH) was ordered by Allah (SWT) to deliver the Bani Israel from these tortures 7:105. The history of Musa (PBH) starts from his birth when Allah (SWT) communicated to his mother to put him (i.e. the new born baby) into a box and put the box in the river (Nile). He informed her that the river will cast him on the bank and the people of Firawn will pick him up. Allah (SWT) had cast His love on Musa (PBH) it was probably due to this that Firawn’s wife pleaded not to kill him and thus he was saved from slaughter. Musa (PBH) as a baby would not drink milk. His sister who was vigilantly following him trickishly recommended the house of his mother for suckling him without revealing who he was. Thus Musa (PBH) was restored to his mother for suckling but he lived in the palace of Firawn and was brought up as a prince by his own enemy who did not realize that this child would grow up to become the cause of his death 20:39-40, 28:7-14.
Musa (PBH) grew up and was granted wisdom and knowledge. One day when he was in the city, a member of his own community i.e. Bani Israel who was fighting with an Egyptian sought his help and in response to this Musa (PBH) struck the Egyptian who died. Musa (PBH) had no intention of killing him so he immediately sought the forgiveness of Allah (SWT) which was granted to him. Next day when he entered the city the same person from his community was again fighting with someone and he again sought Musa’s (PBH) help. When Musa (PBH) intended to catch this man from his own community and punish him for being quarrelsome, he said, “Do you intend to kill me as you killed a man yesterday?” This news reached the palace and someone secretly informed Musa (PBH) that the Egyptians were planning to kill him in retaliation. He therefore escaped to Midian 28:14-22. [Musa (PBH) probably realized that the whole system was corrupt and there was no use in surrendering and pleading ‘Not guilty’ because the murder was neither planned nor intentional]
On reaching Midian he found two ladies waiting for water for their cattle because many men were busy doing this at the watering place. Musa (PBH) helped these two ladies who were probably the daughters of prophet Shuaib (PBH) and who later on took him to their father to whom he narrated his story. Musa (PBH) was married to one of the two sisters and he stayed at Midian for 8 to 10 years 28:23-28.
He was once traveling with his family when he saw a fire on Mount Tuur. When he came near to the fire Allah (SWT) spoke to him and ordered him to go to Firawn and deliver Bani Israel from the tortures they were undergoing. As proof of his prophethood he was given two of the total nine miracles (17:101). His wooden staff became a live snake and his hand became white, He was permitted to take Haruun (PBH) his brother to help him in his mission 28:29-35
Firawn and his chiefs saw the miracles but considered them to be magic, therefore to defeat Musa (PBH) he arranged for his competition with magicians. The wooden staff of Musa (PBH) ate away all the items of magic of the magicians who realizing the truth of the miracle of Musa (PBH) fell down prostrating before Allah (SWT) 20:56-70.
Firawn and his people witnessed the whole affair and were later involved in various calamities still they did not allow Bani Israel to go with Musa (PBH) 7:130-135. One day Musa (PBH) took Bani Israel secretly across the Red Sea when Allah (SWT) had caused a dry path in it, holding the water like huge walls. Firawn and his army followed Bani Israel but when they were midway, the water held in the form of walls flowed in their direction. Thus Allah (SWT) saved the Bani Israel and drowned Firawn and his army 26:53-67. Before his death Firawn declared that he believed in the God in whom Bani Israel believed and that he was of those who submit (as Muslims) Firawn’s dead body was saved 10:90-93 and was later on preserved as a mummy in Egypt (Encyclopedia Britanica), Bani Israel later did many things which pained Musa (PBH). They took the calf for worship 20:80-98. They wanted to see Allah (SWT) 2:55. They requested Musa (PBH) to make for them idols for worship 7:138-141 and they rejected prophet Muhammed (PBH) and the Quran 2:89-91
Night, opposite of day 2:164. It starts after the declining and setting of the sun 17:78 and ends when the white thread of the dawn (Fajar) becomes distinct from the black thread of (of night) 2:187. Allah (SWT) covers the night (i.e. the earth) over the day (i.e. the sun) 7:54 which makes it dark 10:27 when the heavenly bodies become visible 6:76-77. Night is basically meant for rest 10:67, 30:23 Allah (SWT) takes us back at night 6:60 i.e., by taking away our consciousness during sleep 39:42. The Quran was revealed on a blessed night 44:3 i.e. during laylat-il-Qadr 97:1.
We are ordered to offer salat during night 11:114, 17:78-79, 39:9, 51:17, 76:26 glorify Allah (SWT) 20:130, 50:40, 52:49 and to recite the Quran 73:20. (See word No. 118 ‘Al Anhaar for more information)
Allah (SWT) pardons the evil deeds on repentance 42:25 which includes the past sins 5:95. These derivatives also convey the sense of surplus 2:219 and forgoing associated with guarding against evil 2:237, turning mercifully 2:187, gratitude 2:52, reconciliation 42:40, protective forgiveness, mercy 2:286, overlooking 64:14 etc. The words conveying opposite sense are punishment 9:66 and perishing 42:34. We are ordered to pardon and overlook 2:109, 3:134, 7:199. One of the Attributes of Allah (SWT) is ‘Al Afuww’ meaning One Who pardons 4:149.
The derivative ‘Shukr’ conveys the sense of a feeling of gratitude 27:9, 27:40, acknowledgment 27:19 and acceptance which is the opposite of ingratitude and rejection jointly represented by the word ‘kufr’ which also means infidelity 76:3. The feeling of gratitude is a gift from Allah (SWT) and is a sign of wisdom 31:12. If we are grateful for the favours of Allah (SWT) on us He grants us more 14:7 because He likes the expression of gratitude by His servants and does not like ingratitude 39:7. We are therefore ordered to be grateful for our own benefit and not to be ungrateful 2:152. The devil had challenged that the majority of human beings will not be grateful 7:17, we should therefore try our level best to disprove the devil.
The feeling of ‘Shukr’ is associated with belief 4:147, fear of Allah (SWT) 3:123, guidance 2:185, being mindful 25:62, pardon 2:52, forgiveness 35:30, patience 31:31 and grace of Allah (SWT) 16:14.
We should be grateful to Allah (SWT) for granting us the power of hearing, seeing, thinking, feeling etc. 16:78, His other favours 54:35, help and provisions 8:26, livelihood 7:10 etc.
Shaakir and Shakuur meaning One Who acknowledges, are the Attributes of Allah (SWT) 2:158, 35:30. The association of these Attributes with other Attributes Aliim, Haliim and Gafuur indicates that He knows and acknowledges our efforts and forbears with and forgives our short comings for which we should again be grateful to Him.
Other derivatives: Freeing something from some other thing which is unwanted: cure i.e. freeing someone from the disease 3:49, leaders freeing themselves from the followers on the day of resurrection 2:166, Ibrahiim (PBH) freeing himself from his father 9:114 being free from associating partners with Allah (SWT) 6:19, “You are free from that which I do and I am free from that which you do” 10:41.
Few derivatives have been translated to mean bringing into existence 57:22 and creatures 98:6-7. This is again freeing something from non-existence and bringing it into existence.
One of the Attributes of Allah (SWT) is Al Baari translated as ‘The Purifier’. 59:24. Allah (SWT) originates the raw-materials of the universe, processes them and proportions them and in this process He removes unwanted things as Al Baari; The Purifier. This process can be illustrated by an example: We prepare tea by boiling proportionate amounts of tea leaves and water but to obtain the decoction we have to remove the boiled tea leaves by straining. This process of freeing the extraction from the tea leaves is ‘Baraa-’atun’, Allah (SWT) thus purifies by removing unwanted things. This Attribute is associated with many other Attributes mentioned in 59:22-24.
One who kills a believer by mistake should set free one believing slave, if the murdered person belonged to a party with whom there is a treaty then blood money should be paid to the diseased family in addition to setting free a believing slave, if this is not possible the murderer should fast for two successive months 4:92. The reward of one who kills a believer intentionally is hell 4:93. For deliberate murder retaliation is prescribed 2:178-179. Murder is prohibited 6:151, 17:33, 25:68, killing of children for fear of poverty is prohibited 6:151, 17:31, 60:12. Suicide is prohibited 4:29.
Isa (PBH) was neither killed nor crucified but he was raised towards Allah (SWT) 4:157-158. In the battle of Badr Muslims did not kill their enemies but Allah (SWT) did 8:17 Those killed in the path of Allah (SWT) are not dead but alive and are provided with sustenance 3:169, 2:154 they will be in paradise 47:4-6. One of the punishments of those who wage a war against Allah (SWT) and His messenger (PBH) and cause corruption in the earth is murder 5:33. Persecution is severer than slaughter 2:191. Place of murder (death) is fixed 3:154. Murder is associated with death 3:144.
‘Qatala’ in Arabic literature also means ‘To disgrace’. It is probably in this sense that few derivatives have been used to convey the sense that opponents use to disgrace prophets and messengers 2:61, 2:87. Not even a single case of a murder of a prophet or a messenger is reported in the Quran, on the contrary Allah (SWT) saves them 10:103, numerous such events are reported: Nuuh, Saleh, Hud, Ibrahim, Musa, etc. ( PBT )
Other derivatives: Good 2:105, better 2:106 and the best 10:109. The derivatives are associated with patience 4:25, reconciliation 4:128 truth 7:89, forgiveness and mercy 7:155, guarding against evil 9:109, grace and mercy of Allah (SWT) 10:58, piety 12:109, righteousness 18:46, bowing down, prostration and worship 22:77, Attention of Allah (SWT) 30:38, willingness 2:158, wisdom 2:269, belief 4:170, repentance 9:74, the Holy Quran 16:30, purity 18:81, success 9:88 etc. The opposite meanings are conveyed through the words worst 2:61, evil 7:188, 10:11. We are tested through good and evil 21:35 therefore we are ordered to hasten towards good 2:148.
Few derivatives have been used to convey the sense of choice 7:155 (probably because choice is the selection of what one considers better or the best). When Allah (SWT) and His messenger decide an affair, a believer does not have the choice of disobeying 33:36. Allah (SWT) is the Best 20:73.
We see with eyes 3:13. Ibrahiim (PBH) saw the planet at night and the sun in the morning 6:76-78. Sight can be deceptive 27:44, we see in dreams 12:4, 37:102, few derivatives are used to mean dream itself 12:5 and 43 and the night journey of prophet Muhammed (PBH) from Mecca to Jerusalem and witnessing of paradise and hell 17:1. One derivative is used to mean ‘doing something to show to others’ i.e. not for Allah (SWT) 2:264, 4:38. Few derivatives convey the sense of ‘Considering’ i.e. seeing with the eye of the mind 6:40 & 46, 28:71-72. All three words for sight are used in 7:198. Allah (SWT) can make the enemies appear less 8:44. The devil and his tribe see us from a place where we cannot see them 7:27. We cannot see Allah (SWT) in this world 7:143 but He sees 6:103. We will be able to see the angels in the hereafter 25:22, 39:75 we will see our deeds 99:7-8 (will it be an audio visual record like our video cassette) people will be able to see in paradise 76:20 and in hell 37:55.
Other derivatives: Showing openly 4:153, spreading openly 16:75 or loudly 17:110. The opposite sense is conveyed by the words secretly 13:10, hiding 21:110, 87:7 etc.
Other derivatives: Raising to life after death 2:259, raising or sending a prophet 3:164, 2:213, raising (someone as a king) 2:247, sending (people) 26:36, sending (a crow) 5:31, rising in the morning 6:60, letting loose (punishment) 6:65 appointing (a judge) 4:35, raising from graves 22:7, all human beings will be raised on the day of resurrection 23:16, 30:56 creation and raising after death is like that of a single soul 31:28. The opposite sense is given by holding back 9:46.
Other derivatives: Shade 25:45, shadow 16:48, overshadowing cloud 31:32, covering 7:171, 77:30, shelters 16:81, shades in paradise 36:55-56, covering of fire in hell 39:16, shadowed (face) 16:58. The opposite of shade and shadow is heat 35:21.
Another set of derivatives conveys the sense of remaining 26:4 being 20:97, starting 56:65, keeping on 15:14 etc.
Other derivatives: Doubt 10:71 and distress 3:153, the opposite of which is peace 3:154.
Is a gummy saccharine secretion found on species of Tamarisk in Sinai region.
Are birds eaten whole. They were brought from Yemen by a south wind in great numbers to the Isreali camp in the desert.
Other derivatives: Something pleasingly good 13:29 pleasing 4:3, permissible good 2:168, happiness 39:73, clean (dust) 4:43, pleasant and good dwellings in paradise 61:12 etc, the opposite of which is evil 3:179, bad 5:100 etc.
Other derivatives: Entry 12:36 and 67 but are also used to convey the sense of sexual intercourse 4:23 and deceit 16:92. They are used for entry of belief in the hearts /minds 49:14, entering the mercy of Allah (SWT) 48:25, 4:176, entering Islam, entering paradise 2:214 and entering hell 40:60. The opposite of entering is going out 5:22.
City or town 59:7, used for Mecca 47:13, 6:92.
The singular and plural forms of these alphabets mean doors (of a room which can be closed) 12:23, (entering through) the gate 4:154, door of severe punishment (adversity) 23:77, gates of everything (prosperity) 6:44. In paradise angels will enter from every gate 13:23, gates of paradise will be kept open for those who guard against evil 38:50, hell has seven gates 15:44, gates of the sky will not be opened for the deniers and the proud and they will not enter paradise until the camel passes the eye of the needle 7:40 [This indicates that paradise is beyond the earth somewhere in the sky] Gates of the sky are opened for water to pour forth (as rain) 54:11. In 24:43 it is stated “.............. so you see the rain coming out of the spaces in between them” these spaces are probably referred to as gates. On the day of decision when it is blown into the trumpet (or the structure of the universe) the sky will he opened so that it will become gates 78:17-19. A door or a gate is an opening for entering or going out of an enclosed space, something becoming gates would mean that there would be no enclosure, there will be only an open space. This probably refers to the collapsing of the universe 21:104.
Put down from us our heavy burdens of sins.
Other derivatives: (1) Forgiving past sins 8:38 (2) Not harming an opponent by retaliation, revenge or punishment but bearing his injustice with patience 42:43 and protection from defaming the needy 2:63 (3) Protection from future sins 2:286. In the prayers at the end of this Chapter, one who is conscious of his sins would first ask for pardon or forgiveness ‘Afuannaa’ for the sins he has already committed. There is no point is his further asking for forgiveness saying ‘wagfir lanaa’ as this word is normally translated. Here ‘wagfir lanaa’ appears to mean ‘And protect us’ (from committing any sin in future) because two words in any language do not normally convey exactly the same meaning. ‘Magfiratun’ in such situations would mean protection from sins rather than forgiveness of sins. Keeping in view the relationship between prevention and cure, if we consider sin as a disease, then ‘Magfiratun’ would mean seeking preventive protection from possible future sin, in advance, and ‘Afwwun’ meaning pardon, would be the cure for the sin already committed. How can there be forgiveness without protection or safety from the deserved punishment? Therefore ‘Magfiratun’ appears to convey a dual sense (1) preventive protection from possible future sins and (2) consequent protection from the deserved punishment for the sins already committed.
‘Liyagfiralaka’ and ‘zambika’ in 48:2 have been translated by many popular translators as ‘that He may forgive you, your sin ‘or fault’ referring to our prophet Muhammed (PBH). The very idea of our prophet having committed a sin is wrong because it contradicts the Quran which about our prophet (PBH) states :-
‘And you (Muhammed (PBH)) are certainly of an excellent character’ 68:4.
‘By the Quran full of wisdom, you (Muhammed (PBH)) are certainly (one) of the messengers on the straight path’ 36:2-4.
In the messenger of Allah (Muhammed (PBH)), there is indeed a good example for you to follow ........33:21.
By the star when it sets, your companion (Muhammed (PBH)) neither went astray nor was he misled 53:1-2.
............ you (Muhammed (PBH)) are certainly on clear truth 27:79. and then the final challenge :-
“Say ................... I (Muhammed (PBH)) have indeed lived a life time among you before it (i.e. the Quran was revealed)!” 10:16.
In view of these verses of the Quran, the right translation of the verse using the term Liyag firalaka’ would be “that He may protect you from every sin of yours which you (could) send in advance and which you (could) leave behind” 48:2.
This protective forgiveness by Allah (SWT) is for all sins 39:53, mistakes 20:73, evils 7:153, injustice 13:6 etc., except polytheism 4:48, for polytheists forgiveness is not to be sought 9:113. Allah (SWT) punishes whom He wills and protectively forgives whom He wills 5:18. We are ordered to seek the protective forgiveness of Allah (SWT) 41:6. Protective forgiveness is associated with pardon, overlooking 64:14, mercy 7:23, setting things right 33:71, belief 46:36, repentence 40:7, glorification and praising Allah (SWT) 110:2, patience and striving in the path of Allah (SWT) 16:110, grace of Allah (SWT) 2:268, truth 3:17, paradise 2:221.
The words giving opposite meanings are punishment 2:284 and anger 42:37. Three derivatives of these alphabets are used for three Attributes of Allah (SWT). Al Gaffaar 20:82, Al Gafuur 2:173 and Al Gaafir 40:3 conveying the meaning of One Who is Protectively Forgiving. These Attributes are used along with other Attributes like Merciful 2:173, Clement 2:225, Pardoning 22:60, Rabb 34:15, Mighty 35:28, One Who acknowledges 35:30. Loving 85:14, etc.
Allah (SWT), if He wills to, forgive sins already committed, protecting from the deserved punishment, and protects from committing any sin in future. He is thus Protectively Forgiving.
Derivatives of the alphabets are used for (1) Unintentional mistakes 33:5, 4:92-93. (2) Bad intentions without the evil deed actually taking place 12:29 and (3) Bad intentions and consequent evil deeds both are present as in the case of Firawn and his armies 28:8. Ibrahiim (PBH) hopes that his mistakes will be forgiven by Allah (SWT) 26:82.
These derivatives are associated with evil 2:81, forgetting 2:286, forgiving 20:73 etc.
Other derivatives: Best (names of Allah (SWT)) 7:180 (and who is) better in speech than he who invites towards Allah........... 41:33, good (example in the messenger (PBH)) of Allah (SWT) 33:21, beautiful (company of prophets, the truthful, the martyrs and the righteous) 4:69, they have been used for the Quran 39:23, paradise 18:31, beauty 33:52 etc. The reward of good is more good, ten times 6:160, 10:26. Allah’s (SWT) mercy is near those who do good 7:56, He orders to be good and loves those who are good 2:195, whose reward is paradise 77:44.
These derivatives are associated with belief and righteousness 18:30, guarding against evil 3:172, striving in the cause of Allah (SWT) 29:69, migrating in His cause and becoming martyrs 22:58, knowledge 28:14, wisdom and admonition 16:125 patience 28:54, doing good (khyar) 4:59, submitting to Allah (SWT) 4:125, truth 25:33, justice 16:90, conciliation 4:62, restraining anger and pardoning 3:134 etc.
The words which give an opposite sense are evil 41:34, 5:12, 17:7, punishment 18:86, intoxication 16:67, denial 16:62 etc.
Other derivatives: Change 7:162 and exchange 14:28. There is no change in the procedure of Allah (SWT) 33:62.
Other derivatives: Penalty 7:134, weakening uneasiness 8:11 and uncleanliness 74:5. The opposite sense is conveyed through the words cleanliness 74:4 and strengthening of hearts 8:11.
Other derivatives: Drinking 26:79, watering 28:24, watering the plants 13:4 irrigation 2:71, drinking cup 12:70. Human beings will drink in paradise 76:21 as well as hell 47:15.
The wooden staff or a sort of walking stick of Musa (PBH) who reclined on it and used it to beat down the leaves for his sheep 20:18 later on this staff was used to perform a miracles when it turned into a life snake 27:10 which swallowed the ropes and rods of the magicians 7:117. He was asked by Allah (SWT) to strike the rock with his staff for water 7:160 and the sea for a dry path 26:63.
Other derivatives: Gushing forth (of rivers) 18:33; over flowing (of oceans) 82:3, exceeding (limits) 75:5, dawn (when sun light gushes forth) 2:187, 17:78. In view of this a ‘Faajir’ is a transgressor 71:27 (who exceeds the limits set before him) the opposite of which is guarding against evil 38:28 i.e. keeping oneself within limits and being righteous 82:13-14. Transgression is associated with infidelity 80:42 and ingratitude 71:27.
Flowing water 67:30 will be there in paradise too 88:12, 76:6, but in hell they will be of boiling water 88:5.
The derivatives of these alphabets are also used to mean eyes 3:13, through which tears flow 5:83 and which are sometimes deceived by magic 7:116 Allah (SWT) had instructed Nuh (PBH) “And build the ship before Our eyes.........” 11:37
Other derivatives: Drinking 56:68 associated with eating 23:33. Inhabitants of paradise 76:6 and hell 56:54 will also drink. In one verse a derivative is used in an abstract sense “............ They were made to drink into their hearts (the worship of) the calf because of their infidelity 2:93.
Associated with corruption 7:74 and giving less than what is due to people 11:85.
Other derivatives: Eating 33:53, feeding 36:47. They are also used for water 2:249 and taste (in paradise) 47:15. Inmates of hell will eat very bad food 44:44
Mankind consisting of billions of human beings 2:213, 10:19. Water consisting billions of molecules 13:4. ‘Al Wahid’ is an Attribute of Allah (SWT), it means One and not many 2:163, 12:39, 29:46. Allah (SWT) is the One and the only God, the Indivisible Whole possessing all the Attributes at one and the same time which function with perfect coordination and their is no change or alteration in the procedure of Allah (SWT) 35:43.
Other derivatives: Growth (of trees) 23:20, of gardens through rain 27:60, 50:9 of Maryam (PBH) 3:37, of human beings from the earth 71:17 (probably through the food which is grown in the earth and which helps in their growth too).